Editorial Perspective: Defining neurofeedback and its functional processes
AbstractNeurofeedback is gaining widespread attention across clinical and research domains. As our knowledge of the brain and its enigmatic mechanisms increase, so does the interest in harnessing these mechanisms to promote improved mental processes and reduce symptomatic issues. Neuroscience advances and neurofeedback will continue to evolve into a primary focus for learning, performance, and reduction of symptoms in psychopathology. Likewise, electroencephalographic (EEG) and source localization techniques will improve our understanding and identification of biomarker EEG patterns to better identify and ultimately classify specific patterns associated with psychological and neurological syndromes. As technology and production of devices become more prevalent, there is a growing need to define the parameters used in neurofeedback, as well as to classify the processes into specific or nonspecific factors to avoid further confounds and problems across disciplines.
Andreasen, N. C., O'Leary, D. S., Cizadlo, T., Arndt, S., Rezai, K., Watkins, G. L., … Hichwa, R. D. (1995). PET studies of memory: Novel versus practiced free recall of word lists. NeuroImage, 2(4), 296–305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/nimg.1995.1037
Babiloni, C., Marzano, N., Infarinato, F., Iacoboni, M., Rizza, G., Aschieri, P., … Del Percio, C. (2009). "Neural efficiency" of experts' brain during judgment of actions: A high-resolution EEG study in elite and amateur karate athletes. Behavioural Brain Research, 207(2), 466–-475. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2009.10.034
Baumeister, R. F. (2003). Ego depletion and self-regulation failure: A resource model of self-control. Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research, 27(2), 281–284. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.ALC.0000060879.61384.A4
Baumeister, R. F., Gailliot, M., DeWall, C. N., & Oaten, M. (2006). Self-regulation and personality: How interventions increase regulatory success, and how depletion moderates the effects of traits on behavior. Journal of Personality, 74(6), 1773–1802. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2006.00428.x
Baxter, D. A., & Byrne, J. H. (2006). Feeding behavior of Aplysia: A model system for comparing cellular mechanisms of classical and operant conditioning. Learning and Memory, 13(6), 669–680. http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/lm.339206
Beauregard, M., & Lévesque, J. (2006). Functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the effects of neurofeedback training on the neural bases of selective attention and response inhibition in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 31(1), 3–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10484-006-9001-y
Cannon, R., Congedo, M., Lubar, J., & Hutchens, T. (2009). Differentiating a network of executive attention: LORETA neurofeedback in anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. International Journal of Neuroscience, 119(3), 404–441.
Cannon, R., Lubar, J., Congedo, M., Thornton, K., Towler, K., & Hutchens, T. (2007). The effects of neurofeedback training in the cognitive division of the anterior cingulate gyrus. International Journal of Neuroscience, 117(3), 337–357. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207450500514003
Cannon, R. L. (2012). Low resolution electromagnetic brain tomography (LORETA): Basic concepts and clinical applications. Corpus Christi, TX: BMED Press.
Cannon, R. L., & Baldwin, D. R. (2012). EEG current source density and the phenomenology of the default network. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 43(4), 257–267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1550059412449780
Cannon, R. L., Baldwin, D. R., Diloreto, D. J., Phillips, S. T., Shaw, T. L., & Levy, J. J. (2014). LORETA neurofeedback in the precuneus: Operant conditioning in basic mechanisms of self-regulation. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 45(4), 238–248. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1550059413512796
Cannon, R. L., Lubar, J. F., Sokhadze, E., & Baldwin, D. R. (2008). LORETA Neurofeedback for Addiction and the possible neurophysiology of psychological processes influenced: A case study and region of interest analysis of LORETA neurofeedback in right anterior cingulate cortex. Journal of Neurotherapy, 12(4), 227–241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10874200802501948
Cannon, R. L., Pigott, H. E., Surmeli, T., Simkin, D. R., Thatcher, R. W., Van den Bergh, W., … Koberda, J. L. (2014). The problem of patient heterogeneity and lack of proper training in a study of EEG neurofeedback in children. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 75(3), 289–290. http://dx.doi.org/10.4088/JCP.13lr08850
de Greck, M., Rotte, M., Paus, R., Moritz, D., Thiemann, R., Proesch, U., …. Northoff, G. (2008). Is our self based on reward? Self-relatedness recruits neural activity in the reward system. NeuroImage, 39(4), 2066–2075. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2007.11.006
de Ridder, T. D., & de Wit, J. B. F. (Eds.). (2006). Self-regulation in Health Behavior. West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Duncan, J., & Miller, E. K. (2002). Cognitive focusing through adaptive neural coding in the primate prefrontal cortex. In D. Stuss, & R. T. Knight (Eds.), Principles of Frontal Lobe Function (pp. 278-291). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Elbert, T., Pantev, C., Wienbruch, C., Rockstroh, B., & Taub, E. (1995). Increased cortical representation of the fingers of the left hand in string players. Science, 270(5234), 305–307. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.270.5234.305
Foerde, K., Poldrack, R. A., Knowlton, B. J., Sabb, F. W., Bookheimer, S. Y., Bilder, R. M., … Asarnow, R. F. (2008). Selective corticostriatal dysfunction in schizophrenia: Examination of motor and cognitive skill learning. Neuropsychology, 22(1), 100–109.
Frackowiak, R. S., & Ward, N. S. (2004). Recovery of function and plasticity in human brain. Royal Academy of Medicine in Belgium, 159(Pt 2), 145–155.
Fraser, C., Power, M., Hamdy, S., Rothwell, J., Hobday, D., Hollander, I., … Thompson, D. (2002). Driving plasticity in human adult motor cortex is associated with improved motor function after brain injury. Neuron, 34(5), 831–840.
Garavan, H., Kelley, D., Rosen, A., Rao, S. M., & Stein, E. A. (2000). Practice-related functional activation changes in a working memory task. Microscopy Research Technique, 51(1), 54–63.
Garrido, M. I., Kilner, J. M., Kiebel, S. J., Stephan, K. E., Baldeweg, T., & Friston, K. J. (2009). Repetition suppression and plasticity in the human brain. NeuroImage, 48(1), 269–279. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.06.034
Ghaziri, J., Tucholka, A., Larue, V., Blanchette-Sylvestre, M., Reyburn, G., Gilbert, G., … Beauregard, M. (2013). Neurofeedback training induces changes in white and gray matter. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 44(4), 265–272. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1550059413476031
Gilbert, S. J., Dumontheil, I., Simons, J. S., Frith, C. D., & Burgess, P. W. (2007). Comment on "Wandering minds: the default network and stimulus-independent thought." Science, 317(5834), 43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1140801
Hammond, D. C. (2011). What is neurofeedback: An update. Journal of Neurotherapy, 15(4), 305–336. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10874208.2011.623090
Holloway, R. L., Broadfield, D. C., & Yuan, M. S. (2003). Morphology and histology of chimpanzee primary visual striate cortex indicate that brain reorganization predated brain expansion in early hominid evolution. The Anatomical Record, 273A(1), 594–602. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ar.a.10071
Ishikawa, D., Matsumoto, N., Sakaguchi, T., Matsuki, N., & Ikegaya, Y. (2014). Operant conditioning of synaptic and spiking activity patterns in single hippocampal neurons. The Journal of Neuroscience, 34(14), 5044–5053. http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5298-13.2014
Ison, M. J., Quiroga, R. Q., & Fried, I. (2015). Rapid encoding of new memories by individual neurons in the human brain. Neuron, 87(1), 220–230. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2015.06.016
Johnston, S. J., Boehm, S. G., Healy, D., Goebel, R., & Linden, D. E. J. (2010). Neurofeedback: A promising tool for the self-regulation of emotion networks. NeuroImage, 49(1), 1066–1072. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.07.056
Johnston, S., Linden, D. E. J., Healy, D., Goebel, R., Habes, I., & Boehm, S. G. (2011). Upregulation of emotion areas through neurofeedback with a focus on positive mood. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 11(1), 44–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13415-010-0010-1
Kamiya, J. (2011). The first communications about operant conditioning of the EEG. Journal of Neurotherapy, 15(1), 65–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10874208.2011.545764
Kelly, C., Foxe, J. J., & Garavan, H. (2006). Patterns of normal human brain plasticity after practice and their implications for neurorehabilitation. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 87(12 Suppl 2), S20–29.
Kim, J.-W., Choi, E. A., Kim, J.-J., Jeong, B. S., Kim, S.-E., & Ki, S. W. (2008). The role of amygdala during auditory verbal imagery of derogatory appraisals by others. Neuroscience Letters, 446(1), 1–6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2008.09.019
Lévesque, J., Beauregard, M., & Mensour, B. (2006). Effect of neurofeedback training on the neural substrates of selective attention in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Neuroscience Letters, 394(3), 216–221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2005.10.100
Mozzachiodi, R., Lorenzetti, F. D., Baxter, D. A., & Byrne, J. H. (2008). Changes in neuronal excitability serve as a mechanism of long-term memory for operant conditioning. Nature Neuroscience, 11(10), 1146–1148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nn.2184
Neville, H., & Bavelier, D. (2002). Human brain plasticity: Evidence from sensory deprivation and altered language experience. Progress in Brain Research, 138, 177–188. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6123(02)38078-6
Northoff, G., Heinzel, A., de Greck, M., Bermpohl, F., Dobrowolny, H., & Panksepp, J. (2006). Self-referential processing in our brain—A meta-analysis of imaging studies on the self. NeuroImage, 31(1), 440–457.
Parmeggiani, P. L., Azzaroni, A., & Lenzi, P. (1971). On the functional significance of the circuit of Papez. Brain Research, 30(2), 357–374. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(71)90086-2
Pear, J. (2001). The science of learning. Psychology Press.
Petersson, K. M., Elfgren, C., & Ingvar, M. (1999). Dynamic changes in the functional anatomy of the human brain during recall of abstract designs related to practice. Neuropsychologia, 37(5), 567–587.
Poldrack, R. A. (2000). Imaging brain plasticity: Conceptual and methodological issues—A theoretical review. NeuroImage, 12(1), 1–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/nimg.2000.0596
Poldrack, R. A. (2002). Neural systems for perceptual skill learning. Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews, 1(1), 76–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1534582302001001005
Poldrack, R. A., Desmond, J. E., Glover, G. H., & Gabrieli, J. D. (1998). The neural basis of visual skill learning: An fMRI study of mirror reading. Cerebral Cortex, 8(1), 1–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/8.1.1
Poldrack, R. A., & Foerde, K. (2008). Category learning and the memory systems debate. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 32(2), 197–205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2007.07.007
Poldrack, R. A., & Gabrieli, J. D. E. (2001). Characterizing the neural mechanisms of skill learning and repetition priming: Evidence from mirror reading. Brain, 124(1), 67–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/124.1.67
Poldrack, R. A., & Logan, G. D. (1997). Fluency and response speed in recognition judgments. Memory and Cognition, 25(1), 1–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/BF03197280
Poldrack, R. A., & Logan, G. D. (1998). What is the mechanism for fluency in successive recognition? Acta Psychologica, 98(2-3), 167–181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0001-6918(97)00041-3
Skinner, B. F. (1938). The Behavior of Organisms: An Experimental Analysis. New York: Appleton-Century.
Spencer, G. E., Syed, N. I., & Lukowiak, K. (1999). Neural changes after operant conditioning of the aerial respiratory behavior in Lymnaea stagnalis. The Journal of Neuroscience, 19(5), 1836-1843.
Sterman, M. B. (2000). Basic concepts and clinical findings in the treatment of seizure disorders with EEG operant conditioning. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 31(1), 45–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/155005940003100111
Thibault, R. T., Lifshitz, M., Birbaumer, N., & Raz, A. (2015). Neurofeedback, self-regulation, and brain imaging: Clinical science and fad in the service of mental disorders. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 84(4), 193–207. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000371714
Thorndike, E. L. (1898). Animal Intelligence: An experimental study of the associative process in animals. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 2(4), i–109.
Vohs, K. D., Baumeister, R. F., & Ciarocco, N. J. (2005). Self-regulation and self-presentation: Regulatory resource depletion impairs impression management and effortful self-presentation depletes regulatory resources. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88(4), 632–657. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2062
Vohs, K. D., Baumeister, R. F., Schmeichel, B. J., Twenge, J. M., Nelson, N. M., & Tice, D. M. (2008). Making choices impairs subsequent self-control: A limited-resource account of decision making, self-regulation, and active initiative. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94(5), 883–898. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.113
von Bastian, C. C., Langer, N., Jäncke, L., & Oberauer, K. (2013). Effects of working memory training in young and old adults. Memory & Cognition, 41(4), 611–624. http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13421-012-0280-7
Wood, D. J., & Pesut, D. J. (1981). Self-regulatory mental processes and patient recovery. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 3(3), 262–267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/019394598100300322
Copyright (c) 2015 Rex L. Cannon
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).