Coherence: The Measurement and Application of Brain Connectivity

Scott Decker, Paul Thomas Fillmore, Alycia Roberts

Abstract


While much knowledge has been gained by the endeavor to link specific brain sites with specific cognitive functions, modern conceptualizations of brain activity focus much more on the function of networks of brain regions.  A key construct in defining these networks has been the study of connectivity across regions.  In this review, we discuss several methods of measuring connectivity and focus primarily on the utility of electroencephalographic (EEG) coherence.  While over- and under-connectivity have been related to numerous clinical phenomena, we focus our discussion on the role of connectivity in reading and language disorders, and present a Neurocognitive Connectivity (NCC) framework for understanding these disorders.  We argue that EEG coherence presents a unique target for treatment of these and other populations, in that the ability to modulate connectivity via EEG neurofeedback has been shown to be of significant clinical utility.


Keywords


electroencephalography; coherence; neurocognitive connectivity; neurofeedback

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ashkenazi, S., Black, J. M., Abrams, D. A., Hoeft, F., & Menon, V. (2013). Neurobiological

underpinnings of math and reading learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 46(6), 549-569. doi: 10.1177/0022219413483174.

Association For Children with Learning Disabilities. (1986). ACLD Description: Specific

Learning Disabilities. ACLD Newsbriefs, 15-16. doi: 10.1177/002221948301600403.

Bassett, D. S., & Bullmore, E. D. (2006). Small-world brain networks. The neuroscientist, 12(6),

-523. doi:10.1177/1073858406293182. 

Bienkiewicz, M. M., Brandi, M. L., Goldenberg, G., Hughes, C. M., & Hermsdörfer, J. (2014).

The tool in the brain: apraxia in ADL. Behavioral and neurological correlates of apraxia in daily living. Frontiers in Psychology, 5. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00353.

Bowyer, S. M. (2016). Coherence a measure of the brain networks: past and

present. Neuropsychiatric Electrophysiology, 2(1), 1. doi: 10.1186/s40810-015-0015-7.

Bullmore, E., & Sporns, O. (2009). Complex brain networks: graph theoretical analysis of

structural and functional systems. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10(3), 186-198. doi: 10.1038/nrn2618. 

Barquero, L. A., Davis, N., & Cutting, L. E. (2014). Neuroimaging of reading intervention: a

systematic review and activation likelihood estimate meta-analysis. PLoS One, 9(1): e83668. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083668

Boukrina, O., Barrett, A. M., Alexander, E. J., Yao, B., & Graves, W. W. (2015). Neurally

dissociable cognitive components of reading deficits in subacute stroke. Front Hum Neurosci, 9:298. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2015.00298.

Breier, J. I., Simos, P. G., Zouridakis, G., & Papanicolaou, A. C. (1999). Temporal course of

regional brain activation associated with phonological decoding. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsycholy, 21(4):465-76. https://doi.org/10.5555/jcen.21.4.465.883 

Butterworth, B., Varma, S. & Laurillard, D. (2011). Dyscalculia: from brain to education.

Science, 332(6033), 1049-1053. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1201536 

Cannon, R. L., Baldwin, D. R., Shaw, T. L., Diloreto, D. J., Phillips, S. M., Scruggs, A. M., &

Riehl, T. C. (2012). Reliability of quantitative EEG (qEEG) measures and LORETA current source density at 30 days. Neuroscience Letters, 518(1), 27 – 31. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2012.04.035

Cao, F., Bitan, T., & Booth, J. R. (2008). Effective brain connectivity in children with reading

difficulties during phonological processing. Brain and Language, 107(2): 91-101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2007.12.009 

Catani, M. (2005). The rises and falls of disconnection syndromes. Brain, 128(10), 2224-

 https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awh622 

Chabot, R. J., Merkin, H, Wood, L. M., Davenport, T. L., & Serfontein, G. (1996). Sensitivity

and specificity of QEEG in children with attention deficit or specific developmental learning disorders. Clinical Electroencephalography, 27(1), 26-34. https://doi.org/10.1177/155005949602700105 

Coben, R. (2007). Autistic spectrum disorder: A controlled study of EEG coherence training

targeting social skill deficits. In 15th annual conference of the international society for neurofeedback and research, San Diego, California.

Coben, R., Clarke, A. R., Hudspeth, W., & Barry, R. J. (2008). EEG power and coherence in

autistic spectrum disorder. Clinical Neurophysiology,119(5), 1002-1009.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2008.01.013

Coben, R., Wright, E. K., Decker, S. L., & Morgan, T. (2015). The Impact of Coherence

Neurofeedback on Reading Delays in Learning Disabled Children: A Randomized Controlled Study. NeuroRegulation, 2(4), 168. https://doi.org/10.15540/nr.2.4.168 

Coles, G. (1987). The learning mystique: A critical look at "learning disabilities". New York,

NY: Pantheon Books

Corsi-Cabrera, M., Galindo-Vilchis, L., del-Río-Portilla, Y., Arce, C., & Ramos-Loyo, J. (2007).

Within-subject reliability and inter-session stability of EEG power and coherent activity in women evaluated monthly over nine months. Clinical Neurophysiology, 118, 9 – 21.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2006.08.013 

Corsi-Cabrera, M., Solis-Ortiz, S., & Guevara, M. A. (1997). Stability of EEG inter-and

intrahemispheric correlation in women. Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology, 102(3), 248-255. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0013-4694(96)95179-6 

Decker, S. L. (2008). School neuropsychology consultation in neurodevelopmental disorders.

Psychology in the Schools, 45(9), 799-811. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.20327 

Decker, S. L., Hale, J. B., & Flanagan, D. P. (2013). Professional practice issues in the

assessment of cognitive functioning for educational applications. Psychology in the

Schools, 50(3), 300-313. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.21675 

Delacato, C. (1959). The Treatment and Prevention of Reading Problems. Springfield, IL:

Thomas.

Delacato, C (1963). The Diagnosis and Treatment of Speech and Reading Problems. Springfield,

IL: Thomas.

Delacato, C (1966). Neurological Organization and Reading. Springfield, IL: Thomas.

Doman, G. (1974). What to Do about Your Brain-Injured Child or Your Brain-Damaged,

Mentally Retarded, Mentally Deficient, Cerebral-Palsied, Spastic, Flaccid, Rigid,

Epileptic, Autistic, Athetoid, Hyperactive Child. Garden City Park, NY: Avery.

Feldman, H. M., Lee, E. S., Yeatman, J. D., & Yeom, K. W. (2012). Language and reading skills

in school-aged children and adolescents born preterm are associated with white matter properties on diffusion tensor imaging. Neuropsychologia, 50(14):3348-62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2012.10.014.

Fernández, T., Harmony, T., Rodríguez, M., Reyes, A., Marosi, E., & Bernal, J. (1993). Test-

retest reliability of EEG spectral parameters during cognitive tasks: I absolute and relative power. International Journal of Neuroscience, 68(3-4), 255-261. https://doi.org/10.3109/00207459308994280

Fields, R. D. (2008). White matter in learning, cognition and psychiatric disorders. Trends in

neurosciences, 31(7), 361-370. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tins.2008.04.001

Fox, M. D., Snyder, A. Z., Vincent, J. L., Corbetta, M., Van Essen, D. C., & Raichle, M. E.

(2005). The human brain is intrinsically organized into dynamic, anticorrelated functional networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102(27), 9673-9678. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0504136102

Friedrich, E. V., Suttie, N., Sivanathan, A., Lim, T., Louchart, S., & Pineda, J. A. (2014). Brain-

computer interface game applications for combined neurofeedback and biofeedback treatment for children on the autism spectrum. Frontiers in Neuroengineering, 7, 21. https://doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2014.00021

Friston KJ. (2011). Functional and effective connectivity: a review. Brain Connect. 1(1):13-36.

https://doi.org/10.1089/brain.2011.0008.

Frye RE, Wu MH, Liederman J, Fisher JM. (2010). Greater Pre-Stimulus Effective Connectivity

from the Left Inferior Frontal Area to other Areas is Associated with Better Phonological

Decoding in Dyslexic Readers. Front Syst Neurosci. 4:156. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnsys.2010.00156.

Glasser MF, Smith SM, Marcus DS, Andersson JL, Auerbach EJ, Behrens TE, Coalson TS, Harms MP, Jenkinson M, Moeller S, Robinson EC, Sotiropoulos SN, Xu J, Yacoub E, Ugurbil K, Van Essen DC. (2016). The Human Connectome Project's neuroimaging approach. Nat Neurosci. 19(9):1175-87. https://doi.org/10.1038/nn.4361.

Gootjes, L., Bouma, A., Strien, J. v., Scheltens, P., and Stam, C. (2006). Attention modulates

hemispheric differences in functional connectivity: Evidence from meg recordings. Neuroimage, 30(1):245-53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.09.015

Grossmann, T. (2015). The development of social brain functions in infancy. Psychological

Bulletin, 141(6), 1266. http://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000002 

Gruzelier, J. H. (2014). EEG-neurofeedback for optimising performance. III: A review of

methodological and theoretical considerations. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.03.015

Gudmundsson, S., Runarsson, T. P., Sigurdsson, S., Eiriksdottir, D., & Johnsen, K.

(2007). Reliability of quantitative EEG features. Clinical Neurophysiology, 118, 2162 – 2171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2007.06.018 

Hallahan, D. P., & Mercer, C. D. (2001). Learning disabilities: Historical perspectives. Paper

written for the Office of Special Education Programs, U.S. Department of Education, and

presented at the OSEP's LD Summit conference. Washington, D. C.

Hammill, D. D., Leigh, J. E., McNutt, G., and Larsen, S. C. (1981). A new definition of learning

disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 4 (4), 336-342. https://doi.org/10.2307/1510735 

Hammill, D. D. (1990). On defining learning disabilities: An emerging consensus. Journal of

learning Disabilities, 23(2), 74-84. http://doi.org/10.1177/002221949002300201 

He, Q., Xue, G., Chen, C., Chen, C., Lu, Z. L., & Dong, Q. (2013). Decoding the

neuroanatomical basis of reading ability: a multivoxel morphometric study. J Neurosci, 33(31):12835-43. http://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0449-13.2013.

Head, Henry. (1926). Aphasia. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Hinshelwood, J. (1917). Congenital word-blindness. The Lancet, 190(4922), 980.

https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(01)56353-9.

Honey, C. J., Sporns, O., Cammoun, L., Gigandet, X., Thiran, J. P., Meuli, R., & Hagmann, P

(2009). Predicting human resting-state functional connectivity from structural

connectivity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(6), 2035-2040. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0811168106.

Hulme, C. (2014). Reading Retardation and Multi-Sensory Teaching (Psychology Revivals).

New York, NY: Routledge.  https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315734712.

International Dyslexia Association. (2002). Definition of dyslexia. Retrieved from:

https://dyslexiaida.org/definition-of-dyslexia/

John, E. R. (1977). Functional Neuroscience, Vol II: Neurometrics: Clinical Applications of

Quantitative Electrophysiology. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ

Kaiser, D. (2008). Functional Connectivity and Aging: Comodulation and Coherence

Differences. Journal of Neurotherapy, 12(2–3):123-139. http://doi.org/10.1080/10874200802398790.

Kanwisher, N., McDermott, J., & Chun, M. M. (1997). The fusiform face area: a module in

human extrastriate cortex specialized for face perception. J Neurosci, 17(11):4302-11.

Kaufmann, L. and M. von Aster (2012). The diagnosis and management of dyscalculia. Dtsch

Arztebl Int, 109(45), 767–778. http://doi.org/10.3238/arztebl.2012.0767

Kavale, K. A., & Forness, S. R. (1995). The nature of learning disabilities: Critical elements of

diagnosis and classification. New York, NY: Routledge.

Keizer, A. W., Verment, R. S., &Hommel, B. (2010). Enhancing cognitive control through

neurofeedback: A role of gamma-band activity in managing episodic retrieval. NeuroImage, 49(4), 3404–3413, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.11.023

Kirk, S. A., & Bateman, B. (1962). Diagnosis and remediation of learning disabilities. Exceptional Children, 29(2), 73-78.

Koles, Z., Lind, J., & Flor-Henry, P. (2010). Gender differences in brain functional organization

during verbal and spatial cognitive challenges. Brain Topography, 23(2), 199 – 204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10548-009-0119-0.

Kucian, K., Ashkenazi, S. S., Hänggi, J., Rotzer, S., Jäncke, L., Martin, E., & von Aster, M. (2014). Developmental dyscalculia: a dysconnection syndrome? Brain Structure & Function, 219(5): 1721-1733. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00429-013-0597-4.

Kucian, K., & von Aster, M. (2015). Developmental dyscalculia. European Journal of Pediatrics, 174(1): 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00431-014-2455-7

Levinson, H. N. (2000). A Solution to the Riddle--Dyslexia. Stonebridge Publishing.

Kucyi, A., Hove, M. J., Esterman, M., Hutchison, R. M., & Valera, E. M. (2016). Dynamic Brain

Network Correlates of Spontaneous Fluctuations in Attention. Cerebral Cortex, bhw029. https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhw029.

Lebel C, Shaywitz B, Holahan J, Shaywitz S, Marchione K, Beaulieu C. (2013). Diffusion tensor

imaging correlates of reading ability in dysfluent and non-impaired readers. Brain & Language, 125(2):215-22. doi: 10.1016/j.bandl.2012.10.009.

Linden, M., & Gunkelman, J. (2013). QEEG-guided neurofeedback for autism: clinical

observations and outcomes. In M. F. Casanova, A. S. El-Baz, & J. S. Suri (Eds.) Imaging the Brain in Autism (pp. 45-60). New York: Springer.

Ma, N., Liu, Y., Li, N., Wang, C. X., Zhang, H., Jiang, X. F., ... & Zhang, D. R. (2010).

Addiction related alteration in resting-state brain connectivity. Neuroimage, 49(1), 738-744. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.08.037.

Miller, D. C., & Defina, P. A. (2009). The application of neuroscience to the practice of school

neuropsychology. Best Practices in School Neuropsychology: Guidelines for Effective Practice, Assessment, and Evidence-Based Intervention, https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118269855.ch7 

Mišić, B., & Sporns, O. (2016). From regions to connections and networks: new bridges between

brain and behavior. Current opinion in neurobiology, 40, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2016.05.003

Miskovic, V., Schmidt, L. A., Boyle, M., &Saigal, S. (2009. Regional electroencephalogram

(EEG) spectral power and hemispheric coherence in young adults born at extremely low birth weight, Clinical Neurophysiology, 120(2), 231-238. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2008.11.004.

Morgan, W. P. (1896). A case of congenital word blindness. British Medical Journal, 2,

https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.1871.1378 

National Joint Committee On Learning Disabilities. (1988). [Letter to NJCLD member

organizations].

Norton, E. S., Black, J. M., Stanley, L. M., Tanaka, H., Gabrieli, J. D. E., Sawyer, C., & Hoeft, F. (2014). Functional neuroanatomical evidence for the double-deficit hypothesis of developmental dyslexia. Neuropsychologia, 61, 235-246. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2014.06.015

Orton, S. T. (1928). Specific reading disability—strephosymbolia. Journal of the American

Medical Association, 90(14), 1095-1099.

Orton, S. T. (1937). Reading, writing and speech problems in children. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Co. 

Pascual-Marqui, R. D., Michel, C. M. and Lehmann, D. (1994) Low resolution electromagnetic tomography: a new method for localizing electrical activity in the brain. Int J Psychophysiol, 18(1), 49-65.

Pascual-Marqui, R. D., Lehmann, D., Koukkou, M., Kochi, K., Anderer, P., Saletu, B., Tanaka, H., Hirata, K., John, E. R., Prichep, L., Biscay-Lirio, R. and Kinoshita, T. (2011) Assessing interactions in the brain with exact low-resolution electromagnetic tomography. Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci, 369(1952), 3768-84. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2011.0081.

Paulesu, E., Frith, U., Snowling, M., Gallagher, A., Morton, J., Frackowiak, R.S. & Frith, C.D. (1996). Is developmental dyslexia a disconnection syndrome? Brain, 119(1), 143-157.

Paulesu, E., Danelli, L., & Berlingeri, M. (2014). Reading the dyslexic brain: multiple dysfunctional routes revealed by a new meta-analysis of PET and fMRI activation studies. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 8, 830. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2014.00830.

Pickle, J. M. (1998). Historical trends in biological and medical investigations of reading disabilities: 1850–1915. Journal of learning disabilities, 31(6), 625-635.

Pugh, K. R., Mencl, W. E., Shaywitz, B. A., Shaywitz, S. E., Fulbright, R. K., Constable, R. T., ... & Liberman, A. M. (2000). The angular gyrus in developmental dyslexia: task-specific differences in functional connectivity within posterior cortex. Psychological science, 11(1), 51-56.

Qin, Y.-Y., Li, Y.-P., Zhang, S., Xiong, Y., Guo, L.-Y., Yang, S.-Q., … Zhu, W.-Z. (2015). Frequency-specific Alterations of Large-scale Functional Brain Networks in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease. Chinese Medical Journal,128(5), 602–609. http://doi.org/10.4103/0366-6999.151654

Quaglino, V., Bourdin, B., Czternasty, G., Vrignaud, P., Fall, S., Meyer, M.E., Berquin, P., Devauchelle, B., & de Marco, G. (2008). Differences in effective connectivity between dyslexic children and normal readers during a pseudoword reading task: an fMRI study.

Neurophysiol Clin. 38(2):73-82. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neucli.2007.12.007.

Ramus, F. (2014). Neuroimaging sheds new light on the phonological deficit in dyslexia.Trends Cogn Sci. 18(6):274-5. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2014.01.009.

Reschly, A. L., Coolong-Chaffin, M., Christenson, S. L., & Gutkin, T. (2007). Contextual influences and response to intervention: Critical issues and strategies. In Handbook of Response to Intervention (pp. 148-160). Springer, US.

Richards, T.L. & Berninger, V.W. (2008). Abnormal fMRI Connectivity in Children with Dyslexia During a Phoneme Task: Before But Not After Treatment. J Neurolinguistics, 21(4), 294-304. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroling.2007.07.002.

Richardson, J.D., Fillmore, P., Rorden, C., Lapointe, L.L., Fridriksson, J. (2012). Re-establishing Broca's initial findings. Brain and Language, 123(2):125-30. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2012.08.007

Rippon, G., Brock, J., Brown, C., & Boucher, J. (2007). Disordered connectivity in the autistic brain: challenges for the ‘new psychophysiology’. International journal of psychophysiology, 63(2), 164-172. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2006.03.012

Robbins, M.P., & Glass, G.V. (1969). The Doman-Delacato rationale: a critical analysis. In: J. Hellmuth (Ed.), Educational therapy (Vol. 2, pp. 321-377) Seattle, WA: Special Child.

Rosenberg-Lee, M., Ashkenazi, S., Chen, T., Young, C.B., Geary, D.C. & Menon, V. (2015). Brain hyper-connectivity and operation-specific deficits during arithmetic problem solving in children with developmental dyscalculia. Dev Sci, 18(3): 351-372. http://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12216.

Roberts, A. M. & Decker, S. L. (2015). Effects of Neurofeedback on the Cognitive Profiles of College Students. In 23rd annual conference of the international society for neurofeedback and research, Denver, Colorado.

Roberts, A. M., Fillmore, P., & Decker, S. L. (2016). Clinical Applicability of the Test-retest Reliability of qEEG Coherence. NeuroRegulation, 3(1), 7, http://dx.doi.org/10.15540/nr.3.1.7

Shaw, J. C. (1984). Correlation and coherence analysis of the EEG: A selective tutorial review. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 1, 255 – 266.

Shaywitz, S.E. & Shaywitz, B.A. (2008). Paying attention to reading: the neurobiology of reading and dyslexia. Dev Psychopathol, 20(4): 1329-1349. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954579408000631.

Shaywitz, S. E., Shaywitz, B. A., Pugh, K. R., Fulbright, R. K., Constable, R. T., Mencl, W. E., ... & Katz, L. (1998). Functional disruption in the organization of the brain for reading in dyslexia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 95(5), 2636-2641.

Shaywitz, B. A., Shaywitz, S. E., Pugh, K. R., Mencl, W. E., Fulbright, R. K., Skudlarski, P., ... & Gore, J. C. (2002). Disruption of posterior brain systems for reading in children with developmental dyslexia. Biological psychiatry, 52(2), 101-110.

Silani, G., Frith, U., Demonet, J. F., Fazio, F., Perani, D., Price, C., ... & Paulesu, E. (2005). Brain abnormalities underlying altered activation in dyslexia: a voxel based morphometry study. Brain, 128(10), 2453-2461. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awh579.

Smith, S.M., Beckmann, C.F., Andersson, J., Auerbach, E.J., Bijsterbosch, J., Douaud, G., Duff, E., Feinberg D.A, … WU-Minn HCP Consortium. (2013). Resting-state fMRI in the Human Connectome Project. Neuroimage, 80, 144–168. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.05.039.

Stam, C. J. (2014). Modern network science of neurological disorders. Nat Rev Neurosci, 15(10), 683-695. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrn3801

Temple, E. (2002). Brain mechanisms in normal and dyslexic readers. Curr Opin Neurobiol, 12(2): 178-183.

Thatcher, R. W. (2010). Validity and reliability of quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG). Journal of Neurotherapy, 14(2), 122–152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10874201003773500.

Thatcher, R. W., Krause, P. J., & Hrybyk, M. (1986). Cortico-cortical associations and EEG coherence: A two-compartmental model. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 64(2), 123 – 143.

Thatcher, R. W., Walker, R. A., Biver, C. J., North, D. N., & Curtin, R. (2003). Quantitative EEG normative databases: Validation and clinical correlation. Journal of Neurotherapy, 7(3-4), 87-121.

Thierry G, Boulanouar K, Kherif F, Ranjeva JP, Démonet JF. (1999). Temporal sorting of neural components underlying phonological processing. Neuroreport, 10(12), 2599-603.

Tucker, D.M., Roth, D.L., & Bair, T.B. (1986). Functional Connections Among Cortical Regions - Topography of Eeg Coherence. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 63, 242-250. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0013-4694(86)90092-1.

van den Heuvel, M. P. and O. Sporns (2013). Network hubs in the human brain. Trends Cogn Sci, 17(12): 683-696. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2013.09.012.

Vandermosten M, Boets B, Poelmans H, Sunaert S, Wouters J, Ghesquière P. (2012). A tractography study in dyslexia: neuroanatomic correlates of orthographic, phonological and speech processing. Brain, 135(3):935-48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awr363.

Voytek, B. and R. T. Knight (2015). Dynamic network communication as a unifying neural basis for cognition, development, aging, and disease. Biol Psychiatry, 77(12): 1089-1097. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.04.016.

Widjaja, E., Zamyadi, M., Raybaud, C., Snead, O.C., Doesburg, S.M. & Smith, M.L. (2015). Disrupted Global and Regional Structural Networks and Subnetworks in Children with Localization-Related Epilepsy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol, 36(7): 1362-1368. http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A4265.

Wiederholt, J. L. (1974). Historical perspectives on the education of the learning disabled. In L. Mann & D. Sabatino (Eds.), The second review of special education (pp. 103–152). Philadelphia: JSE Press.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15540/nr.4.1.3

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 Scott Decker, Paul Thomas Fillmore, Alycia Roberts

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                    

                                                     

             ISSN: 2373-0587