Neurofeedback: A noninvasive treatment for symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in veterans




Veterans, posttraumatic stress disorder, PTSD, well-being, IVA-2, CPT, GWBS, attention, artifact corrected, neurofeedback, EEG biofeedback


This paper discusses positive therapeutic gains made with veterans whose primary treatment for PTSD was artifact corrected neurofeedback. Assessments completed after both 20 and 40 half-hour sessions of treatment identified significant improvements for both auditory and visual attention using the IVA-2 CPT and the veterans reported significant improvements in their well-being based on the General Well-Being Scale (GWBS). It was discovered that neurofeedback impacted individuals’ overall auditory attention and that the IVA-2 global auditory test scores significantly improved after both 20 (p < .007, Cohen’s d = 0.5) and 40 training sessions (p < .0001, Cohen’s d = 0.8).  Veterans were found to have significant enhancements specifically in auditory vigilance (p < .03), processing speed (p < .0009) and focus (p < .01). The IVA-2 global measure of visual attention was also found to show significant improvements after 20 sessions (p < .004, Cohen’s d = 0.5) and after 40 sessions (p < .06, Cohen’s d = 0.4). Specific improvements in visual processing speed (p < .04) and focus (p< .02) were identified after 40 sessions. Ratings of well-being also significantly improved after treatment (p < .001, Cohen’s d = 0.8) with 84% of the veterans improving five points or more on the GWBS. These improvements in well-being were found to be significantly correlated with increases in veterans’ overall auditory attention (r = .44, p < .03) and auditory processing speed (r = .57, p < .005).  

Author Biographies

Connie McReynolds, California State University, San Bernardino

Special Education, Rehabilitation & Counseling Department


Jodi Bell, Loma Linda University

Department of Psychology, Doctoral Student

Tina M Lincourt, Loma Linda University

Department of Psychology, Doctoral Student



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