Sparks over Saturn: A Revision on Francisco de Goya´s (1746-1828) disorders

  • Javier Vigil Morant None
Keywords: Goya, Electrotherapy, Bipolar, Depression, Lead, Neurosyphilis



In 2012, the Official Curator of Prado Museum, G. Maurer, revealed a letter which showed that the famous painter Francisco Joseph de Goya y Lucientes (1746-1828) had Electrotherapy sessions with a “Glass Disc Machine” (a Ramsden machine). Goya was trying to cure his deafness. The 1793 ‘illness of Goya’ seems still to be an enigma. Recently, Susac Syndrome has been mentioned again as one of the possible causes. We will briefly see the use of electrotherapy ca.1800, and make a revision, with an ICD, DSM based criteria, of the diseases and mental disorders (Bipolar II, PTSD), that could have affected to Goya during his life, especially Syphilis, Malaria, Typhus, and a life-long Heavy metal poisoning.

Author Biography

Javier Vigil Morant, None

Psychology of Health 

Licensed and Registered 



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