LORETA Neurofeedback at precuneus in 3-year-old female with intrauterine drug exposure
This case study presents data for operant conditioning of alpha current source density (CSD)in a 3-year-old female that completed 20 sessions of LNFB to address sequelae associated with intrauterine drug exposure (IUDE), including explosive reactions to unfavorable activities and siblings, deficits in self-care and self-direction and reducing social deficits. One of the more difficult processes is to assess children less than 6 years of age due to extreme variability in affect, interest and focus. However, IUDE increases the range of potential problems and diagnostic confounds. This individual showed improvements across ABAS-3 ratings by parents post-training and was able to complete the K-CPT post training and at 30-day follow-up. Her data demonstrated a general increase in the desired response (alpha CSD at precuneus) across time. Additional changes were evident in the default network (DMN) and a theorized mechanism of self-regulation (SRN) post training with a significant decrease at follow-up suggesting a learning effect over time. This case study demonstrates that LNFB may produce positive effects in children under the age of 4.
Bard, K. A., Coles, C. D., Platzman, K. A., & Lynch, M. E. (2000). The effects of prenatal drug exposure, term status, and caregiving on arousal and arousal modulation in 8-week-old infants. Dev Psychobiol, 36(3), 194-212.
Bhide, P. G., & Kosofsky, B. E. (2009). Neuro-developmental consequences of prenatal drug exposure. Preface. Dev Neurosci, 31(1-2), 5. doi:10.1159/000209397
Blom, J. L., & Anneveldt, M. (1982). An electrode cap tested. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol, 54(5), 591-594.
Buckingham-Howes, S., Mazza, D., Wang, Y., Granger, D. A., & Black, M. M. (2016). Prenatal Drug Exposure and Adolescent Cortisol Reactivity: Association with Behavioral Concerns. J Dev Behav Pediatr, 37(7), 565-572. doi:10.1097/DBP.0000000000000338
Butz, A. M., Pulsifer, M. B., Leppert, M., Rimrodt, S., & Belcher, H. (2003). Comparison of intelligence, school readiness skills, and attention in in-utero drug-exposed and nonexposed preschool children. Clin Pediatr (Phila), 42(8), 727-739. doi:10.1177/000992280304200809
Cannon, R. (2014). Parietal Foci for Attention/Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Targets for LORETA Neurofeedback with outcomes. Biofeedback, 42, 47-57.
Cannon, R., Congedo, M., Lubar, J., & Hutchens, T. (2009). Differentiating a network of executive attention: LORETA neurofeedback in anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. Int J Neurosci, 119(3), 404-441. doi:10.1080/00207450802480325
Cannon, R., Lubar, J., Congedo, M., Thornton, K., Towler, K., & Hutchens, T. (2007). The effects of neurofeedback training in the cognitive division of the anterior cingulate gyrus. Int J Neurosci, 117(3), 337-357. doi:10.1080/00207450500514003
Cannon, R. L., Baldwin, D. R., Diloreto, D. J., Phillips, S. T., Shaw, T. L., & Levy, J. J. (2014). LORETA Neurofeedback in the Precuneus: Operant Conditioning in Basic Mechanisms of Self-Regulation. Clin EEG Neurosci, 45(4), 238-248. doi:10.1177/1550059413512796
Derauf, C., Kekatpure, M., Neyzi, N., Lester, B., & Kosofsky, B. (2009). Neuroimaging of children following prenatal drug exposure. Semin Cell Dev Biol, 20(4), 441-454. doi:10.1016/j.semcdb.2009.03.001
Franck, E. J. (1996). Prenatally drug-exposed children in out-of-home care: are we looking at the whole picture? Child Welfare, 75(1), 19-34.
Freeman, J. (2000). Testing drug-exposed children. Iowa Med, 90(6), 9.
Gao, W., Zhu, H., Giovanello, K. S., Smith, J. K., Shen, D., Gilmore, J. H., & Lin, W. (2009). Evidence on the emergence of the brain's default network from 2-week-old to 2-year-old healthy pediatric subjects. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 106(16), 6790-6795. doi:10.1073/pnas.0811221106
Giovanello, K. S., Schnyer, D., & Verfaellie, M. (2009). Distinct hippocampal regions make unique contributions to relational memory. Hippocampus, 19(2), 111-117. doi:10.1002/hipo.20491
Harrison, P. L., & Oakland, T. (2015). Adaptive Behavior Assessment System Manual (Third Edition ed.).
Huybrechts, K. F., Bateman, B. T., Desai, R. J., Hernandez-Diaz, S., Rough, K., Mogun, H., . . . Patorno, E. (2017). Risk of neonatal drug withdrawal after intrauterine co-exposure to opioids and psychotropic medications: cohort study. BMJ, 358, j3326. doi:10.1136/bmj.j3326
Jaeger, D. A., Suchan, B., Scholmerich, A., Schneider, D. T., & Gawehn, N. (2015). Attention Functioning in Children with Prenatal Drug Exposure. Infant Ment Health J, 36(5), 522-530. doi:10.1002/imhj.21530
Kelley, S. J. (1992). Parenting stress and child maltreatment in drug-exposed children. Child Abuse Negl, 16(3), 317-328.
Kne, T., Shaw, M. W., Garfield, E. F., & Hicks, J. (1994). A program to address the special needs of drug-exposed children. J Sch Health, 64(6), 251-253.
Mayes, L. C., Cicchetti, D., Acharyya, S., & Zhang, H. (2003). Developmental trajectories of cocaine-and-other-drug-exposed and non-cocaine-exposed children. J Dev Behav Pediatr, 24(5), 323-335.
McNichol, T. (1999). The impact of drug-exposed children on family foster care. Child Welfare, 78(1), 184-196.
Menon, V., & Uddin, L. Q. (2010). Saliency, switching, attention and control: a network model of insula function. Brain Struct Funct, 214(5-6), 655-667. doi:10.1007/s00429-010-0262-0
Nadebaum, C., Anderson, V., Vajda, F., Reutens, D., & Wood, A. (2012). Neurobehavioral consequences of prenatal antiepileptic drug exposure. Dev Neuropsychol, 37(1), 1-29. doi:10.1080/87565641.2011.589483
Nomi, J. S., Farrant, K., Damaraju, E., Rachakonda, S., Calhoun, V. D., & Uddin, L. Q. (2016). Dynamic functional network connectivity reveals unique and overlapping profiles of insula subdivisions. Hum Brain Mapp, 37(5), 1770-1787. doi:10.1002/hbm.23135
Odriozola, P., Uddin, L. Q., Lynch, C. J., Kochalka, J., Chen, T., & Menon, V. (2016). Insula response and connectivity during social and non-social attention in children with autism. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci, 11(3), 433-444. doi:10.1093/scan/nsv126
Pulsifer, M. B., Radonovich, K., Belcher, H. M., & Butz, A. M. (2004). Intelligence and school readiness in preschool children with prenatal drug exposure. Child Neuropsychol, 10(2), 89-101. doi:10.1080/09297040490911104
Robey, A., Buckingham-Howes, S., Salmeron, B. J., Black, M. M., & Riggins, T. (2014). Relations among prospective memory, cognitive abilities, and brain structure in adolescents who vary in prenatal drug exposure. J Exp Child Psychol, 127, 144-162. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2014.01.008
Sheinkopf, S. J., Lester, B. M., Sanes, J. N., Eliassen, J. C., Hutchison, E. R., Seifer, R., . . . Casey, B. J. (2009). Functional MRI and response inhibition in children exposed to cocaine in utero. Preliminary findings. Dev Neurosci, 31(1-2), 159-166. doi:10.1159/000207503
Supekar, K., Uddin, L. Q., Prater, K., Amin, H., Greicius, M. D., & Menon, V. (2010). Development of functional and structural connectivity within the default mode network in young children. Neuroimage, 52(1), 290-301. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.04.009
Uddin, L. Q., & Menon, V. (2009). The anterior insula in autism: under-connected and under-examined. Neurosci Biobehav Rev, 33(8), 1198-1203. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2009.06.002
Copyright (c) 2018 Rex L Cannon
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).