Efficacy of Live Z-Score Neurofeedback Training for Chronic Insomnia: A Single-Case Study


  • Ruben Perez-Elvira NEPSA Rehabilitacion Neurologica
  • José A. Carrobles Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
  • Diego J López Bote NEPSA Rehabilitación Neurológica
  • Javier Oltra-Cucarella University of Alicante




insomnia, neurofeedback, z-score, QEEG, z-score neurofeedback


Objective/Background: Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in the general population.  Pharmacological treatments have shown efficacy in the short term, yet the symptoms return once the treatment has been withdrawn.  In the search for treatment options with long-lasting effects, neurofeedback (NF) has arisen as a therapeutic option.  Neurofeedback is the application of operant conditioning to brain activity.  The aim of this work is to show the effectiveness of Live Z-Score NF training (LZT), a paradigm within the field of NF, in a case of insomnia.  Participants: A 32-year-old male with chronic insomnia since his adolescence.  Methods: Thirty 35-min sessions of qEEG-guided LZT using patient’s highly preferred feedback.  The main outcomes of this study were the patient’s qEEG metrics and a visual analog scale of sleep quality throughout the intervention.  Results: qEEG-guided LZT showed an improvement of 90.63% of the patient’s qEEG metrics and an 82.55% relief of the clinical symptoms after 30 NF sessions.  Conclusions: Although more research is needed to establish that NF based on Live Z-Score is effective for insomnia, our results suggest that NF might be a therapeutic alternative for the treatment of insomnia.


Author Biography

Ruben Perez-Elvira, NEPSA Rehabilitacion Neurologica

Clinical Chief

NEPSA Rehabilitación Neurológica


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