Remediation of PTSD in a Combat Veteran: A Case Study

  • George Louis Lindenfeld, Ph.D., A.B.P.P. RESET Therapy Professional Institute, LLC
  • George Rozelle, Ph.D., BCN, Senior Fellow, Diplomate in MindSpa Integrative Wellness Center, Sarasota, FL 34233.
  • John Hummer, Ph. D., BCN James H. Quillen VA Medical Center, Johnson City, Tennessee
  • Michael R. Sutherland, Ph.D. Univ. of Mass., Amherst, MA
  • James C. Miller, Ph.D., Senior Research Physiologist, U Senior Research Physiologist, U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory (retired), Corpus Christi, TX.
Keywords: posttraumatic stress disorder, trauma, memory reconsolidation, binaural sound, neuronal network of PTSD


Publication Note: On 07-10-2019 an inadvertent typesetting error for Figures 6 and 7 was discovered and corrected; on 07-10-2019 (at 9:30pm PST) the article PDF was modified to correct the images of Figures 6 and 7; no content in the article text was changed or modified.

The posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) condition is a systemic neuroinflammatory state that emanates from a failure to recover from traumatic occurrence(s).  Major complications associated with PTSD include problems with impulse control and issues related to verbal and physical outbursts of anger and rage.  The Veteran’s Administration (VA) projects a post–9/11 veteran population of around 3.5 million by 2019.  Emotional problems are prevalent among combat service members and veterans with about half of the group suffering from various symptoms of PTSD.  Three in four among them report they are reliving traumas in the form of flashbacks and nightmares.  Current mental health treatments have not fully remediated the negative impact that results from PTSD.  We present a case study of a novel and transformative treatment approach called Reconsolidation Enhancement by Stimulation of Emotional Triggers (RESET) Therapy.  The intervention uses binaural sound to unlock the memory reconsolidation process, thereby releasing the emotional component of experienced trauma.  RESET Therapy offers a compelling therapeutic adjunct to the practicing biofeedback/neurofeedback clinician, who is under constant pressure to deliver interventions that are rapid, tolerable, and cost-effective.  Additionally, the treatment spares the therapist from repeated exposures to the raw limbic activity of traumatized patients, thereby minimizing the potential for vicarious traumatization.  


Agbu, J.-f. O. (2015). Management of negative self-image using rational emotive and behavioural therapy and assertiveness training. ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 16(1), 57–68.

American Addiction Centers. (2019). Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, causes and effects. Retrieved from

Bam, M., Yang, X., Zumbrun, E. E., Zhong, Y., Zhou, J., Ginsberg, J. P., … Nagarkatti, M. (2016). Dysregulated immune system networks in war veterans with PTSD is an outcome of altered miRNA expression and DNA methylation. Scientific Reports, 6, 31209.

Bangel, K. A., Buschbach, S., Smit, D. J. A., Mazaheri, A., & Olff, M. (2017). Aberrant brain response after auditory deviance in PTSD compared to trauma controls: An EEG study. Scientific Reports, 7(1), 16596.

Beauchene, C., Abaid, N., Moran, R., Diana, R. A., & Leonessa, A. (2017). The effect of binaural beats on verbal working memory and cortical connectivity. Journal of Neural Engineering, 14(2), 026014.

Beckers, T., & Kindt, M. (2017). Memory reconsolidation interference as an emerging treatment for emotional disorders: Strengths, limitations, challenges, and opportunities. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 13, 99–121.

Bergstein, B. (2014, June 17). The promise and perils of manipulating memory. MIT Technology Review. [Internet Blog]. Retrieved from

Bovin, M. J., Marx, B. P., Weathers, F. W., Gallagher, M. W., Rodriguez, P., Schnurr, P. P., & Keane, T. M. (2016). Psychometric properties of the PTSD Checklist for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (PCL-5) in veterans. Psychological Assessment, 28(11), 1379–1391.

BrainMaster Discovery 24E [Apparatus]. Bedford, OH: BrainMaster Technologies, Inc.

Brenner, L. A. (2011). Neuropsychological and neuroimaging findings in traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 13(3), 311–323.

Bressler, S. L., & Menon, V. (2010). Large-scale brain networks in cognition: Emerging methods and principles. Trends in Cognitive Science, 14(6), 277–290.

Buckley, T. C., & Kaloupek, D. G. (2001). A meta-analytic examination of basal cardiovascular activity in posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychosomatic Medicine, 63(4), 585–594.

Cannon R. L., Baldwin D. R., Shaw T. L., Diloreto, D. J., Phillips, S. M., Scruggs, A. M., & Riehl, T. C. (2012). Reliability of Quantitative EEG (qEEG) measures and LORETA current source density at 30 days. Neuroscience Letters, 518(1), 27–31.

Cannon, R., Lubar, J., Thornton, K., Wilson, S., & Congedo, M. (2004). Limbic beta activation and LORETA: Can hippocampal and related limbic activity be recorded and changes visualized using LORETA in an affective memory condition? Journal of Neurotherapy, 8(4).

Chalmers, J. A., Quintana, D., Abbott, A., & Kemp, A. H. (2014). Anxiety disorders are associated with reduced heart rate variability: A meta-analysis. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 11, 80.

Colzato, L. S., Barone, H., Sellaro, R., & Hommel, B. (2017). More attentional focusing through binaural beats: Evidence from the global–local task. Psychological Research, 81(1), 271–277.

Dahlgaard, J., Jørgensen, M. M., van der Velden, A. M., Sumbundu, A., Gregersen, N., Olsen, R. K., & Mehlsen, M. Y. (2019). Mindfulness, health, and longevity. In S. I. S. Rattan & M. Kyriazis (Eds.), The Science of Hormesis in Health and Longevity (pp. 243–255). New York, NY: Academic Press/Elsevier.

Davidson, R. J., & Hugdahl, K. (1996). Brain Asymmetry. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Dennis, P. A., Dedert, E. A., Van Voorhees, E. E., Watkins, L. L., Hayano, J., Calhoun, P. S., … Beckham, J. C. (2016). Examining the crux of autonomic dysfunction in posttraumatic stress disorder: Whether chronic or situational distress underlies elevated heart rate and attenuated heart rate variability. Psychosomatic Medicine, 78(7), 805–809.

DiSabato, D. J., Quan, N., & Godbout, J. P. (2016). Neuroinflammation: The devil is in the details. Journal of Neurochemistry, 139(52), 136–153.

Domingo-Fernandez, D., Provost, A., Kodamullil, A. T., Marin-Llao, J., Lasseter, H., Diaz, K., … Haas, M. (2019). PTSD Biomarker Database: Deep dive meta-database for PTSD biomarkers, visualizations, and analysis tools. BioRxiv, 547901. Advance online publication.

Dudai, Y., Karni, A., & Born, J. (2015). The consolidation and transformation of memory. Neuron, 88(1), 20–32.

Dunkley, B. T., Sedge, P. A, Doesburg, S. M., Grodecki, R. J., Jetly, R., Shek, P. N., ... Pang, E. W. (2015). Theta, mental flexibility, and post-traumatic stress disorder: Connecting in the parietal cortex. PLoS ONE, 10(4), e0123541.

Dunsmoor, J. E., Niv, Y., Daw, N., & Phelps, E. A. (2015). Rethinking extinction. Neuron, 88(1), 47–63.

Ecker, B., Ticic, R., & Hulley, L. (2012). Unlocking the emotional brain: Eliminating symptoms at their roots using memory reconsolidation. New York, NY: Routledge.

Electro-Cap system [Apparatus]. Eaton, OH: Electro-Cap International, Inc.

Engdahl, B., Leuthold A. C., Tan, H.-R. M., Lewis S. M., Winskowski, A. M., Dikel, T. N., & Georgopoulos, A. P. (2010). Post-traumatic stress disorder: A right temporal lobe syndrome? Journal of Neural Engineering, 7(6), 1–8.

Engels, A. S., Heller, W., Mohanty, A., Herrington, J. D., Banich, M. T., Webb, A. G., & Miller, G. A. (2007). Specificity of regional brain activity in anxiety types during emotion processing. Psychophysiology, 44(3), 352–363.

Falconer, E., Bryant, R., Felmingham, K. L., Kemp, A. H., Gordon, E., Peduto, A., … Williams, L. M. (2008). The neural networks of inhibitory control in posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience, 33(5), 413–422.

Flanagan, D. A., & Kerin, A. (2017). How is intraoperative music therapy beneficial to adult patients undergoing general anesthesia? A systematic review. Anesthesia EJournal, 5, 5–13. Retrieved from

Foster, D. S., & Thatcher, R. W. (2015). Surface and LORETA neurofeedback in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder and mild traumatic brain injury. In R. W. Thatcher & J. F. Lubar (Eds.), Z score neurofeedback: Clinical applications (pp. 59–92). Waltham, MA: Academic Press.

Fourrier, C., Singhal, G., & Baune, B. T. (2019). Neuroinflammation and cognition across psychiatric conditions. CNS Spectrums, 24(1), 4–15.

Frueh, B. C., Grubaugh, A. L., Yeager, D. E., & Magruder, K. M. (2009). Delayed-onset post-traumatic stress disorder among war veterans in primary care clinics. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 194(6), 515–520.

Gálvez, G., Recuero, M., Canuet, L., & Del-Pozo, F. (2017). Short-term effects of binaural beats on EEG power, functional connectivity, cognition, gait, and anxiety in Parkinson’s Disease. International Journal of Neural Systems, 28(5), 1750055.

Garcia-Argibay, M., Santed, M. A., & Reales, J. M. (2017). Binaural auditory beats affect long-term memory. Psychological Research, 1–33. Advance online publication.

Gieselmann, A., Aoudia, M. A., Carr, M., Germain, A., Gorzka, R., Holzinger, B., … Pietrowsky, R. (2019). Aetiology and treatment of nightmare disorder: State of the art and future perspectives. Journal of Sleep Research, e12820. Advance online publication.

Giustino, T. F., Fitzgerald, P. J., & Maren, S. (2016). Fear expression suppresses medial prefrontal cortical firing in rats. PLoS ONE, 11(10), e0165256.

Golkar, A., Tjaden, C., & Kindt, M. (2017). Vicarious extinction learning during reconsolidation neutralizes fear memory. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 92, 87–93.

Greene, E., & Greene, A. (1977). Beyond biofeedback. New York, NY: Dell Press.

Harnes, J. M. (2010, August 27). Rapid resolution therapy [Internet Blog]. Retrieved from

Health, P. B. (2010, June 15). PTSD in veterans linked to dementia in later life [Internet Blog]. Retrieved from

Helpman, L., Marin, M.-F., Papini, S., Zhu, X., Sullivan, G. M., Schneier, F., … Neria, Y. (2016). Neural changes in extinction recall following prolonged exposure treatment for PTSD: A longitudinal fMRI study. NeuroImage: Clinical, 12, 715–723.

Herrington, J. D., Heller, W., Mohanty, A., Engels, A. S., Banich, M. T., Webb, A. G., & Miller, G. A. (2010). Localization of asymmetric brain function in emotion and depression. Psychophysiology, 47(3), 442–454.

Isik, B. K., Esen, A., Büyükerkmen, B., Kilinç, A., & Menziletoglu, D. (2017). Effectiveness of binaural beats in reducing preoperative dental anxiety. The British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 55(6), 571–574.

Kaiser, D. A. (2006). What is quantitative EEG? Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(4), 37–52.

Kaplan, D. M., Smith, T., & Coons, J. (1995). A validity study of the subjective unit of discomfort (SUD) score. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 27(4), 195–199. Retrieved from

Kibler, J. L. (2009). Posttraumatic stress and cardiac disease risk. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 10(2), 135–150.

Krystal, J. H., Davis, L. L., Neylan, T. C., Raskind, M. A., Schnurr, P. P., Stein, M. B., … Huang, G. D. (2017). It is time to address the crisis in the pharmacotherapy of posttraumatic stress disorder: A consensus statement of the PTSD Psychopharmacology Working Group. Biological Psychiatry, 82(7), e51–e59.

Laird, A. R., Fox, P. M., Eickhoff, S. B., Turner, J. A., Ray, K. L., McKay, D. R., … Fox, P. T. (2011). Behavioral interpretations of intrinsic connectivity networks. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23(12), 4022–4037.

Lake, J. (2015). The integrative management of PTSD: A review of conventional and CAM approaches used to prevent and treat PTSD with emphasis on military personnel. Advances in Integrative Medicine, 2(1), 13–23.

Lande, R. G., Williams, L. B., Francis, J. L., Gragnani, C., & Morin, M. L. (2010). Efficacy of biofeedback for post-traumatic stress disorder. Complementary Therapeutic Medicine, 18(6), 256–259.

Lanius, R. A., Frewen, P. A., Tursich, M., Jetly, R., & McKinnon, M. C. (2015). Restoring large-scale brain networks in PTSD and related disorders: A proposal for neuroscientifically-informed treatment interventions. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 6(1), 27313–27324.

Lawlis, F. (2006). About the BAUD [Website]. Retrieved from

Lawlis, F. (2010). An international clinical study of the sonic disruption of sympathetic arousal principle as designed in the BAUD device. Unpublished manuscript. Retrieved from'l%20study.pdf

Lawlis, F., (2011). The PTSD Breakthrough: The Revolutionary, Science-Based Compass RESET Program. Naperville, IL: Sourcebooks.

LeCron, L. M. (1964). Self-Hypnotism: The technique and its use in daily living. New York, NY: Penguin Books, Ltd.

Levine, P. A., & Frederick, A. (1997). Waking the tiger: Healing trauma (1st ed.). Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books.

Lindenfeld, G., & Bruursema, L. R. (2015). Resetting the fear switch in PTSD: A novel treatment using acoustical neuromodulation to modify memory reconsolidation. Unpublished manuscript. Retrieved from

Lindenfeld, G., & Rozelle, G. (2015). PTSD: Brain on fire. A RESET Therapy (QEEG) brain map analysis case study of an Afghanistan combat veteran. Unpublished manuscript. Retrieved from

Lindenfeld, G., Rozelle, G., Soutar, R., Hummer, J., & Sutherland, M. (2019, Winter). Post-traumatic stress remediated: A study of eight combat veterans. New Mind Journal. Retrieved from

Lipov, E., Tukan, A., & Candido, K. (2018). It is time to look for new treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder: Can sympathetic system modulation be an answer? Biological Psychiatry, 84(2), e17–e18.

Logue, M. W., van Rooij, S. J. H., Dennis, E. L., Davis, S. L., Hayes, J. P., Stevens, J. S., … Morey, R. A. (2018). Smaller hippocampal volume in posttraumatic stress disorder: A multisite ENIGMA–PGC study: Subcortical volumetry results from posttraumatic stress disorder consortia. Biological Psychiatry, 83(3), 244–253.

Luo, Y., Fernández, G., Hermans, E., Vogel, S., Zhang, Y., Li, H., & Klumpers, F. (2018). How acute stress may enhance subsequent memory for threat stimuli outside the focus of attention: DLPFC-amygdala decoupling. NeuroImage, 171, 311–322.

Maren, S., & Holmes, A. (2016). Stress and fear extinction. Neuropsychopharmacology, 41(1), 58–79.

Martone, G. (2019). Can taming inflammation help reduce aggression? Current Psychiatry, 18(2), 49–50.

McGaugh, J. L. (2000). Memory: A century of consolidation. Science, 287(5451), 248–251.

McGilchrist, I. (2009). The master and his emissary: The divided brain and the making of the western world. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

McLeay, S. C., Harvey, W. M., Romaniuk, M. N. M., Crawford, D. H. G., Colquhoun, D. M., Young, R. M., … Lawford, B. R. (2017). Physical comorbidities of post-traumatic stress disorder in Australian Vietnam War veterans. The Medical Journal of Australia, 206(6), 251–257.

Mellon, S. H., Gautam, A., Hammamieh, R., Jett, M., & Wolkowitz, O. M. (2018). Metabolism, metabolomics, and inflammation in posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 83(10), 866–875.

Menon, V., (2015). Salience network. In A. W. Toga (Ed.), Brain mapping: An encyclopedic reference (Vol. 2, pp. 597–611). New York, NY: Academic Press/Elsevier.

Merabet, L. B., & Pascual-Leone, A. (2010). Neural reorganization following sensory loss: The opportunity of change. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 11, 44–52.

Miller, J. C., & Lindenfeld, G. (2017, May). Auditory stimulation therapy for PTSD. Conference presentation presented at the 88th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Aerospace Medical Association, Denver, CO. Retrieved from

Miller, M. W., Lin, A. P., Wolf, E. J., & Miller, D. R. (2018). Oxidative stress, inflammation, and neuroprogression in chronic PTSD. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 26(2), 57–69.

Monfils, M.-H., Cowansage, K. K., Klann, E., & LeDoux, J. E. (2009). Extinction-reconsolidation boundaries: Key to persistent attenuation of fear memories. Science, 324(5929), 951–955.

Monson, C. M., & Shnaider, P. (2014). Concise guides on trauma care book series. Treating PTSD with cognitive-behavioral therapies: Interventions that work. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Moore, J. P., Trudeau, D. L., Thuras, P. D., Rubin, Y., Stockley, H., & Diamond, T. (2000). Comparison of alpha-theta, alpha, and EMG neurofeedback in the production of alpha-theta crossover and the occurrence of visualizations. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4(1), 29–42.

Nagpal, M. L., Gleichauf, K., & Ginsberg, J. P. (2013). Meta-analysis of heart rate variability as a psychophysiological indicator of posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Trauma & Treatment, 3, 182.

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH; 2019). Post-traumatic stress disorder [Website]. Retrieved from

NeuroGuide Deluxe [Computer software]. (n.d.). Largo, FL: Applied Neuroscience, Inc.

Noohi, S., Miraghaie, A. M., Arabi, A., & Nooripour, R. (2017). Effectiveness of neuro-feedback treatment with alpha/theta method on PTSD symptoms and their executing function. Biomedical Research, 28(5), 2019–2027. Retrieved from

Orr, S. P., Metzger, L. J., Lasko, N. B., Macklin, M. L., Peri, T., & Pitman, R. K. (2000). De novo conditioning in trauma-exposed individuals with and without posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109(2), 290–298.

Orr, S. P., Meyerhoff, J. L., Edwards, J. V., & Pitman, R. K. (1998). Heart rate and blood pressure resting levels and responses to generic stressors in Vietnam veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 11(1), 155–164.

Othmer, S., Othmer S. F., & Kaiser, D. A. (1999). EEG biofeedback: An emerging model for its global efficacy. In J. R. Evans & A. Abarbanel (Eds.), Introduction to quantitative EEG and neurofeedback, (1st ed., pp. 243–310). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Pascual-Marqui R. D., Lehmann, D., Koukkou, M., Kochi, K., Anderer, P., Saletu, B., … Kinoshita, T. (2011). Assessing interactions in the brain with exact low-resolution electromagnetic tomography. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 369(1952), 3768–3784.

Peniston, E. G., & Kulkosky, P. J. (1989). Alpha-theta brainwave training and beta-endorphin levels in alcoholics. Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research, 13(2), 271–279.

Peniston, E., & Kulkosky, P. (1991). Alpha-theta brainwave neuro-feedback for veterans with combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder. Medical Psychotherapy, 4, 47–60.

Peniston, E. G., Marrinan, D. A., Deming, W. A., & Kulkosky, P. J. (1993). EEG alpha-theta brainwave synchronization in Vietnam theater veterans with combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder and alcohol abuse. Advances in Medical Psychotherapy, 6, 37–50.

Penix, E. A., Kim, P. Y., Wilk, J. E., & Adler, A. B. (2019). Secondary traumatic stress in deployed healthcare staff. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 11(1), 1–9.

Pfitzer, B. E. (2008). A step towards a broader understanding of complex traumatization in victims of crime (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from

Polak, A. R., Witteveen, A. B., Denys, D., & Olff, M. (2015). Breathing biofeedback as an adjunct to exposure in cognitive behavioral therapy hastens the reduction of PTSD symptoms: A pilot study. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 40(1), 25–31.

Posner, M. I., & Raichle, M. E. (1994). Images of mind (1st ed., Scientific American Library). New York, NY: W. H. Freeman & Co.

Psychological Health Center of Excellence (PHCoE; 2018). Biofeedback for posttraumatic stress disorder. [Website]. Retrieved from

Putnam, J. (2000). The effects of brief, eyes-open alpha brain wave training with audio and video relaxation induction on the EEG of 77 Army reservists. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4(1), 17–28.

Pyne, J. M., Constans, J. I., Wiederhold, M. D., Gibson, D. P., Kimbrell, T., Kramer, T. L., … McCune, T. R. (2016). Heart rate variability: Pre-deployment predictor of post-deployment PTSD symptoms. Biological Psychology, 121(A), 91–98.

Rastegar, N., Dolatshahi, B., & Dogahe, E. R. (2016). The effect of neurofeedback training on increasing sustained attention in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Practice in Clinical Psychology, 4(2), 97–104.

Rauch, S. L., Shin, L. M., & Phelps, E. A. (2006). Neurocircuitry models of posttraumatic stress disorder and extinction: Human neuroimaging research—Past, present, and future. Biological Psychiatry, 60(4), 376–382.

Rosenthal, M. (2015). The science behind PTSD symptoms: How trauma changes the brain [Internet Blog]. Retrieved from

Ryder, A. L., Azcarate, P. M., & Choen, B. E. (2018). PTSD and physical health. Current Psychiatry Reports, 20(12), 116.

Schaefer, M. T., & Olson, D. H. (1981). Assessing intimacy: The PAIR inventory. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 7(1), 47–60.

Schmidt, L. J., Belopolsky, A. V., & Theeuwes, J. (2015). Attentional capture by signals of threat. Cognition and Emotion, 29(4), 687–694.

Schroyens, N., Beckers, T., & Kindt, M. (2017). In search for boundary conditions of reconsolidation: A failure of fear memory interference. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 11, 65.

Sewak, R., & Spielholz, N. I. (2018). Relapse prevention: Using sound to reduce the probability of recidivism and suffering following detoxification. Medical Hypotheses, 118, 84–91.

Smith, W. D. (2008). The effect of neurofeedback training on PTSD symptoms of depression and attention problems among military veterans (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from

Soares, J. M., Marques, P., Magalhães, R., Santos, N. C., & Sousa, N. (2014). Brain structure across the lifespan: The influence of stress and mood. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 6, 330.

Soutar, R. (in press). Holistic neurointegration: The new mind model—A bio-psycho-social qEEG guided neurofeedback method. Roswell, GA: New Mind Academy.

Soutar, R., Hopson, J., & Longo, R. (2016, Winter). Correlating oxidative stress and qEEG. New Mind Journal. Retrieved from

Speer, K., Upton, D., Semple, S., & McKune, A. (2018). Systemic low-grade inflammation in post-traumatic stress disorder: A systematic review. Journal of Inflammation Research, 11, 111–121.

Sporns, O. (2010). Networks of the brain. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Sumner, J. A., Chen, Q., Roberts, A. L., Winning, A., Rimm, E. B., Gilsanz, P., … Kubzansky, L. D. (2017). Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder with inflammatory and endothelial function markers in women. Biological Psychiatry, 82(12), 875–884.

Sung, H.-C., Lee, W.-L., Li, H.-M., Lin, C.-Y., Wu, Y.-Z., Wang, J.-J., & Li, T.-L. (2017). Familiar music listening with binaural beats for older people with depressive symptoms in retirement homes. Neuropsychiatry, 7(4), 347–353.

Swingle, P. G. (2008). Biofeedback for the brain: How neurotherapy effectively treats depression, ADHD, autism, and more. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Tan, G., Dao, T. K., Farmer, L., Sutherland, R. J., & Gervitz, R. (2011). Heart rate variability (HRV) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): A pilot study. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 36(1), 27–35.

Tan, G., Wang, P., & Ginsberg, J. (2013). Heart rate variability and posttraumatic stress disorder. Biofeedback, 41(3), 131–135.

Tanielian, T., & Jaycox, L. H. (Eds., 2008). Invisible wounds of war: Psychological and cognitive injuries, their consequences, and services to assist recovery. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. Retrieved from

Thatcher, R. W. (2011). Neuropsychiatry and quantitative EEG in the 21st Century. Neuropsychiatry, 1(5), 495–514.

Thatcher, R. W., North, D., & Biver, C. (2005). Evaluation and validity of a LORETA normative EEG database. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 36(2), 116.

Todder, D., Levine, J., Abujumah, A., Mater, M., Cohen, H., & Kaplan, Z. (2012). The quantitative electroencephalogram and the low-resolution electrical tomographic analysis in posttraumatic stress disorder. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 43(1), 48–53.

van der Kolk, B. A., McFarlane, A. C., & Weisaeth, L. (Eds., 1996). Traumatic stress: The effects of overwhelming experience on mind, body, and society (1st ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Wahbeh, H., & Oken, B. S. (2013). Peak high-frequency HRV and peak alpha frequency higher in PTSD. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 38(1), 57–69.

Weathers, F. W., Blake, D. D., Schnurr, P. P., Kaloupek, D. G., Marx, B. P., & Keane, T. M. (2013). The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5). [Assessment]. Available from

White, E. K., Groeneveld, K. M., Tittle, R. K., Bolhuis, N. A., Martin, R. E., Royer, T. G., & Fotuhi, M. (2017). Combined neurofeedback and heart rate variability training for individuals with symptoms of anxiety and depression: A retrospective study. NeuroRegulation, 4(1), 37–55.

Widholm, J. J. (2010). Extinction learning as a model of drug treatment and relapse: A behavioral overview. The Open Addiction Journal, 3(1), 57–62.

Research Papers