Effect of EEG Neurofeedback Training in Patients with Moderate–Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Clinical and Electrophysiological Outcome Study

  • Rajnish Kumar Gupta Department of Clinical Psychology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, India
  • Mohammed Afsar Department of Clinical Psychology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, India
  • Rohit Kumar Yadav Department of Clinical Psychology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, India
  • Dhaval P Shukla Department of Neurosurgery, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, India
  • Jamuna Rajeswaran Department of Clinical Psychology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, India
Keywords: neurofeedback, traumatic brain injury, EEG, post-concussion symptoms, electrophysiology


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death, and its survivors with a disability are considered to be an important global health priority.  In view of a diverse range of disability and its impact on TBI survivors, the need for effective rehabilitation modalities is on a high rise.  Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate the efficacy of EEG neurofeedback training (EEG-NFT) in moderate–severe TBI patients on their clinical and electrophysiological outcomes.  The study was an experimental longitudinal design with a pre-post comparison.  A total of 14 TBI patients in a postinjury period between 3 months to 2 years were recruited.  All participants received twenty sessions of EEG-NFT.  Baseline and post-NFT comparisons were made on postconcussion symptoms (PCS) and electrophysiological variables.  The result indicates a significant reduction in the severity of PCS following EEG-NFT.  A consistent pattern of reduced slow waves and fast waves amplitude ratios was also noted at post-NFT, although it was not significant across all the brain regions.  The present study suggests EEG-NFT as a contributing factor in improving PCS and normalization of qEEG in TBI patients, which holds an implication for clinical decision-making of EEG-NFT as a viable alternative to be offered to TBI patients.


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