Analysis of the Quality of Diet and Academic Performance in Rural Primary School Students

  • Pedro José Carrillo López Universidad de Murcia
  • Andrés Rosa Guillamón
  • Eliseo García Cantó
  • José Enrique Moral García
  • Juan José Pérez Soto
Keywords: academic performance, cognitive health, diet, schoolchildren

Abstract

The aim was to analyze the relationship between the quality of diet and academic performance in rural primary school students, a cross-sectional study made up of 181 rural schoolchildren (8.75 ± 1.79 years) from the island of Fuerteventura.  Academic performance was calculated through the average grade in the subjects described in Royal Decree 126/2014, February 28th.  The quality of the Mediterranean diet was assessed through the KIDMED questionnaire.  The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test did not reflect statistically significant differences in academic performance as a function of the quality of the Mediterranean diet, neither in men nor in women (p > .005).  The multinomial logistic regression test after adjusting for sex and age, reflected that schoolchildren with a higher quality of diet were more likely to have passed the areas of Social Sciences and Natural Sciences when compared to their failed peers (p < .05).  Thus, a higher quality of the diet in rural primary schoolchildren seems to be associated with passing the areas of Social Sciences and Natural Sciences.  Health promotion professionals in the school environment must consider the positive role that diet can play in academic performance and start programs to promote healthy eating among schoolchildren.

References

Alfonso Rosa, R. M., Álvarez Barbosa, F., & del Pozo Cruz, J. (2018). Adherencia a la dieta mediterránea, el rendimiento académico y el nivel de actividad física en edad escolar. Sportis, Scientific Journal of School Sport, Physical Education and Psychomotricity, 4(2), 255–268. https://doi.org/10.17979/sportis.2018.4.2.3108

Attuquayefio, T., Stevenson, R. J., Oaten, M. J., & Francis, H. M. (2017). A four-day Western-style dietary intervention causes reductions in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory and interoceptive sensitivity. PLoS ONE, 12(2), e0172645. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0172645

Bleiweiss-Sande, R., Chui, K., Wright, C., Amin, S., Anzman-Frasca, S., & Sacheck, J. M. (2019). Associations between food group intake, cognition, and academic achievement in elementary schoolchildren. Nutrients, 11(11), 2722. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112722

Burrows, T., Goldman, S., Pursey, K., & Lim, R. (2017). Is there an association between dietary intake and academic achievement: A systematic review. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 30(2), 117–140. https://doi.org/10.1111/jhn.12407

Castells, M. (2008). El reconocimiento internacional de la Dieta Mediterránea como Patrimonio inmaterial: Oportunidades para el turismo gastronómico balear. Boletín Gestión Cultural, 17, 2–16.

Dumuid, D., Olds, T., Martín-Fernández, J.-A., Lewis, L. K., Cassidy, L., & Maher, C. (2017). Academic performance and lifestyle behaviors in Australian school children: A cluster analysis. Health Education & Behavior, 44(6), 918–927. https://doi.org/10.1177/1090198117699508

Eilander, A., Gera, T., Sachdev, H. S., Transler, C., van der Knaap, H. C. M., Kok, F. J., & Osendarp, S. J. M. (2010). Multiple micronutrient supplementation for improving cognitive performance in children: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 91(1), 115–130. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2009.28376

Esteban-Cornejo, I., Izquierdo-Gomez, R., Gómez-Martínez, S., Padilla-Moledo, C., Castro-Piñero, J., Marcos, A., & Veiga, O. L. (2016). Adherence to the Mediterranean diet and academic performance in youth: The UP&DOWN study. European Journal of Nutrition, 55(3), 1133–1140. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-015-0927-9

Estruch, R., & Ros, E. (2020). The role of the Mediterranean diet on weight loss and obesity-related diseases. Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders, 21, 315–327. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11154-020-09579-0

Faught, E. L., Ekwaru, J. P., Gleddie, D., Storey, K. E., Asbridge, M., & Veugelers, P. J. (2017). The combined impact of diet, physical activity, sleep and screen time on academic achievement: A prospective study of elementary school students in Nova Scotia, Canada. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 14(1), 29. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-017-0476-0

Faught, E. L., Qian, W., Carson, V. L., Storey, K. E., Faulkner, G., Veugelers, P. J., & Leatherdale, S. T. (2019). The longitudinal impact of diet, physical activity, sleep, and screen time on Canadian adolescents' academic achievement: An analysis from the COMPASS study. Preventive Medicine, 125, 24–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2019.05.007

Gandhi, S., & Abramov, A. Y. (2012). Mechanism of oxidative stress in neurodegeneration. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2012, 428010. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/428010

García Cantó, E., Carrillo López, P. J., & Rosa Guillamón, A. (2019). Análisis de la dieta mediterránea en escolares de Primaria, Secundaria y Bachillerato (Analysis of the Mediterranean diet in Primary, Secondary and high shool students). Revista Chilena de Nutrición, 46(4), 469–476. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0717-75182019000400469

Garrido-Yserte, R., Gallo-Rivera, M. T., & Martínez-Gautier, D. (2019). Más allá de las aulas: Los determinantes del bajo rendimiento educativo en España y el fracaso de las políticas públicas. International Review of Economic Policy. Revista Internacional de Política Económica, 1(1), 86–106. https://doi.org/10.7203/IREP.1.1.16459

Gimeno Tena, A., & Esteve Clavero, A. (2020). Factores nutricionales y rendimiento académico. Estudio piloto. Ágora de Salut, 7, 127–134. https://doi.org/10.6035/AgoraSalut.2020.7.13

Haapala, E. A., Eloranta, A.-M., Venäläinen, T., Jalkanen, H., Poikkeus, A.-M., Ahonen, T., & Lakka, T. A. (2017). Diet quality and academic achievement: A prospective study among primary school children. European Journal of Nutrition, 56(7), 2299–2308. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-016-1270-5

Hassevoort, K. M., Khan, N. A., Hillman, C. H., & Cohen, N. J. (2016). Childhood markers of health behavior relate to hippocampal health, memory, and academic performance. Mind, Brain, and Education, 10(3), 162–170. https://doi.org/10.1111/mbe.12108

Ibarra Mora, J., Hernández Mosqueira, C. M., & Ventura-Vall-Llovera, C. (2019). Hábitos alimentarios y rendimiento académico en escolares adolescentes de Chile. Revista Española de Nutrición Humana y Dietética, 23(4), 292–301. https://doi.org/10.14306/renhyd.23.4.804

Iglesias, Á., Planells, E., & Molina López, J. (2019). Prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad, hábitos alimentarios y actividad física y su relación sobre el rendimiento académico (Prevalence of overweight and obesity, exercise, and dietary habits, and their relation with academic achievement). Retos, 36, 167–173. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v36i36.66873

Lamas, H. A. (2015). Sobre el rendimiento escolar. Propósitos y Representaciones, 3(1), 313–386. https://doi.org/10.20511/pyr2015.v3n1.74

McIsaac, J.-L. D., Kirk, S. F. L., & Kuhle, S. (2015). The association between health behaviours and academic performance in Canadian elementary school students: A cross-sectional study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12(11), 14857–14871. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph121114857

Nathan, N., Yoong, S. L., Sutherland, R., Reilly, K., Delaney, T., Janssen, L., … Wolfenden, L. (2016). Effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention to enhance implementation of a healthy canteen policy in Australian primary schools: A randomised controlled trial. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 13(1), 106. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-016-0431-5

Nyaradi, A., Li, J., Foster, J. K., Hickling, S., Jacques, A., O'Sullivan, T. A., & Oddy, W. H. (2016). Good‐quality diet in the early years may have a positive effect on academic achievement. Acta Paediatrica, 105(5), e209–e218. https://doi.org/10.1111/apa.13324

Nyaradi, A., Li, J., Hickling, S., Foster, J., & Oddy, W. H. (2013). The role of nutrition in children's neurocognitive development, from pregnancy through childhood. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 97. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2013.00097

Parletta, N., Milte, C. M., & Meyer, B. J. (2013). Nutritional modulation of cognitive function and mental health. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 24(5), 725–743. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2013.01.002

Pearce, K., Golley, R., Lewis, L., Cassidy, L., Olds, T., & Maher, C. (2018). The apples of academic performance: Associations between dietary patterns and academic performance in Australian children. Journal of School Health, 88(6), 444–452. https://doi.org/10.1111/josh.12631

Portolés Ariño, A., & González Fernández, J. (2015). Rendimiento académico y correspondencias con indicadores de salud física y psicológica. Sportis. Scientific Journal of School Sport, Physical Education and Psychmotricity, 1(2), 164–181. https://doi.org/10.17979/sportis.2015.1.2.1409

Ramón-Arbués, E., Martínez-Abadía, B., Granada-López, J. M., Echániz-Serrano, E., Huércanos-Esparza, I., & Antón-Solanas, I. (2020). Asociación entre la adherencia a la dieta mediterránea y la prevalencia de factores de riesgo cardiovascular (Association between adherence to the Mediterranean diat and the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors). Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem, 28, e3295. https://doi.org/10.1590/1518-8345.3904.3295

Rosa Guillamón, A., García Canto, E., & Carrillo López, P. J. (2019). Capacidad aeróbica y rendimiento académico en escolares de educación primaria (Aerobic capacity and academic performance in primary schoolchildren). Retos, 35, 351–354. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v0i35.66769

Sanz Ponce, R., Serrano Sarmiento, Á., & González Bertolín, A. (2020). PISA: El precio pedagógico de una evaluación internacional. Revista Electrónica de Investigación Educativa, 22, e22, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.24320/redie.2020.22.e22.2673

Schwingshackl, L., Morze, J., & Hoffmann, G. (2020). Mediterranean diet and health status: Active ingredients and pharmacological mechanisms. British Journal of Pharmacology, 177(6), 1241–1257. https://doi.org/10.1111/bph.14778

Serra-Majem, L., Ribas, L., Ngo, J., Ortega, R. M., García, A., Pérez-Rodrigo, C., & Aranceta, J. (2004). Food, youth and the Mediterranean diet in Spain. Development of KIDMED, Mediterranean Diet Quality Index in children and adolescents. Public Health Nutrition, 7(7), 931–935. https://doi.org/10.1079/PHN2004556

Sørensen, L. B., Damsgaard, C. T., Petersen, R. A., Dalskov, S.-M., Hjorth, M. F., Dyssegaard, C. B., … Michaelsen, K. F. (2016). Differences in the effects of school meals on children's cognitive performance according to gender, household education and baseline reading skills. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70(10), 1155–1161. https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2016.99

Vassiloudis, I., Yiannakouris, N., Panagiotakos, D. B., Apostolopoulos, K., & Costarelli, V. (2014). Academic performance in relation to adherence to the Mediterranean diet and energy balance behaviors in Greek primary schoolchildren. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 46(3), 164–170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneb.2013.11.001

Yserte, R. G., Gallo-Rivera, M. T., & Martínez-Gautier, D. (2020). ¿Cuáles son y cómo operan los determinantes del fracaso escolar? Replanteando las políticas públicas para el caso de España y sus regiones. RICEG, Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Estado y de Gobierno, 1(4), 509–540.

Published
2021-03-28
Section
Research Papers