COVID-19 and the Brain: Infection Mechanisms, Electroencephalographic Findings and Clinical Implications

  • Darius John Herbert Rountree-Harrison Macquarie University
Keywords: COVID-19, long-COVID, electroencephalogram, neurofeedback, neuromodulation


The term long-COVID refers to a wide array of psychological impacts arising from infection with the Severe Acute Respiratory Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus has been reported to attack the nervous system directly, with nondirect impacts to organs and systems, such as elevated inflammation, blood pressure, and immune responses also damaging the brain. The electroencephalogram (EEG) has been used to image these insults and provides a valuable tool to guide understanding of infection mechanisms and, consequentially, therapeutic intervention. Due to the high likelihood of neurological complications, neurofeedback and other forms of neuromodulation may be particularly well suited to help long-COVID patients recover. However, clinicians providing neuromodulation interventions should be aware of, and take adequate steps to minimize, risks to themselves and others in providing face-to-face services. This review seeks to provide mental health professionals with an overview of the impacts of COVID-19 upon the nervous system, details current EEG findings, and outlines possibly relevant neurofeedback and neuromodulation interventions.


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