Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field on Reactive Performance
Keywords:T-PEMF, Electromagnetic Stimulation, perceptual motor speed, reactive performance
Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) stimulation has been widely used in clinical settings for injury recovery and pain reduction; however, little is understood on its ability to modulate cortical activity, specifically in enhancing reactive performance. We hypothesized that stimulation of the FpZ site (Brodmann areas 10, 11, and 32), would upregulate activity in the prefrontal cortex, namely, the attentional network, which controls volitional movement. Twenty healthy subjects completed six trials on the Dynavision D2 interactive light board to establish a baseline for reactive performance (10 experimental and 10 sham). All participants donned a Bellabee wearable device and underwent (or did not undergo, if designated to the sham condition) 40 min of beta stimulation at the 10-20 FpZ location. Six trials were completed again after stimulation. A paired t-test revealed significant differences in the visual (p = .003) and physical (p = .011) components for the experimental condition. A student’s t-test revealed the motor component to be significant (p = .023) when evaluating the postreaction time between the two conditions. Our findings suggest that a single dose of PEMF stimulation was sufficient to elicit significant changes in increasing reactive performance.
Bagurdes, L. A., Mesulam, M. M., Gitelman, D. R., Weintraub, S., & Small, D. M. (2008). Modulation of the spatial attention network by incentives in healthy aging and mild cognitive impairment. Neuropsychologia, 46(12), 2943–2948. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2008.06.005
Bechara, A., Damasio, A. R., Damasio, H., & Anderson, S. W. (1994). Insensitivity to future consequences following damage to human prefrontal cortex. Cognition, 50(1–3), 7–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0277(94)90018-3
Burgess, P. W., Quayle, A., & Frith, C. D. (2001). Brain regions involved in prospective memory as determined by positron emission tomography. Neuropsychologia, 39(6), 545–555. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0028-3932(00)00149-4
Capone, F., Dileone, M., Profice, P., Pilato, F., Musumeci, G., Minicuci, G., Ranieri, F., Cadossi, R., Setti, S., Tonali, P. A., & Di Lazzaro, V. (2009). Does exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields produce functional changes in human brain? Journal of Neural Transmission, 116(3), 257–65. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00702-009-0184-2
Christoff, K., Prabhakaran, V., Dorfman, J., Zhao, Z., Kroger, J. K., Holyoak, K. J., & Gabrieli, J. D. E. (2001). Rostrolateral prefrontal cortex involvement in relational integration during reasoning. NeuroImage, 14(5), 1136–1149. https://doi.org/10.1006/nimg.2001.0922
Durkee, K., Geyer, A., Pappada, S., Ortiz, A., & Galster, S. (2013). Real-time workload assessment as a foundation for human performance augmentation. Foundations of Augmented Cognition, 279–288. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-39454-6_29
Elliott, R., Agnew, Z., & Deakin, J. F. W. (2010). Hedonic and informational functions of the human orbitofrontal cortex. Cerebral Cortex, 20(1), 198–204. https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhp092
Fine, J. M., & Hayden, B. J. (2022). The whole prefrontal cortex is premotor cortex. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 377(1844), 20200524. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2020.0524
Friedman, N. P., & Robbins, T. W. (2022). The role of prefrontal cortex in cognitive control and executive function. Neuropsychopharmacology, 47(1), 72–89. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41386-021-01132-0
Fuggetta, G., Fiaschi, A., & Manganotti, P. (2005). Modulation of cortical oscillatory activities induced by varying single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation intensity over the left primary motor area: A combined EEG and TMS study. NeuroImage, 27(4), 896–908. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.05.013
Funk, R. H. W. (2018). Coupling of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) therapy to molecular grounds of the cell. American Journal of Translational Research, 10(5), 1260–1272.
Holroyd, C. B., & Yeung, N. (2012). Motivation of extended behaviors by anterior cingulate cortex. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16(2), 122–128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2011.12.008
Jenkins, I. H., Brooks, D. J., Nixon, P. D., Frackowiak, R. S., & Passingham, R. E. (1994). Motor sequence learning: A study with positron emission tomography. Journal of Neuroscience, 14(6), 3775–3790. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.14-06-03775.1994
Koechlin, E., Basso, G., Pietrini, P., Panzer, S., & Grafman, J.. (1999). The role of the anterior prefrontal cortex in human cognition. Nature, 399(6732), 148–151. https://doi.org/10.1038/20178
Kwak, S., Kim, S.-Y., Bae, D., Hwang, W.-J., Cho, K. I. K., Lim, K.-O., Park, H.-Y., Lee, T. Y., & Kwon, J. S. (2020). Enhanced attentional network by short-term intensive meditation. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 3073. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.03073
Lepsien, J., & Nobre, A. C. (2006). Cognitive control of attention in the human brain: Insights from orienting attention to mental representations. Brain Research, 1105(1), 20–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2006.03.033
Miller, E. K., & Cohen, J. D. (2001). An integrative theory of prefrontal cortex function. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 24(1), 167–202. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.neuro.24.1.167
Parasuraman, R., de Visser, E., Clarke, E., McGarry, W. E., Hussey, E., Shaw, T., & Thompson, J. C. (2009). Detecting threat-related intentional actions of others: Effects of image quality, response mode, and target cuing on vigilance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 15(4), 275–290. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0017132
Parasuraman, R., & Galster, S. (2013). Sensing, assessing, and augmenting threat detection: Behavioral, neuroimaging, and brain stimulation evidence for the critical role of attention. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 273. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2013.00273
Parsons, B., Magill, T., Boucher, A., Zhang, M., Zogbo, K., Bérubé, S., Scheffer, O., Beauregard, M., & Faubert, J. (2016). Enhancing cognitive function using perceptual-cognitive training. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 47(1), 37–47. https://doi.org/10.1177/1550059414563746
Petersen, S. E., & Posner, M. I. (2012). The attention system of the human brain: 20 years after. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 35, 73–89. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-062111-150525
Rasouli, J., Rukmani, L., White, N. M., Flamm, E. S., Pilla, A. A., Strauch, B., & Casper, D. (2012). Attenuation of interleukin-1beta by pulsed electromagnetic fields after traumatic brain injury. Neuroscience Letters, 519(1), 4–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2012.03.089
Wang, X.-J. (2010). Neurophysiological and computational principles of cortical rhythms in cognition. Physiological Reviews, 90(3), 1195–1268. https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00035.2008
Copyright (c) 2023 Madison R. Grigg, Hana K. Ulman, Mary K. Gregg, Scott M. Galster, Vic S. Finomore
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).