Evidence-Based Interventions for Improved Psychosocial Outcomes in Harmful Alcohol Use: A Scoping Review


  • Kashyapi Thakuria Christ Deemed to be University
  • Dr Cathlyn Niranjana Bennett Christ University, Bangalore




EEG Neurofeedback, Psychosocial outcome, Quality of Life, Harmful Alcohol use, psychosocial intervention


Background. Harmful alcohol use is defined as a drinking pattern that lasts at least one month or has occurred often during the preceding 12 months and that negatively impacts multiple facets of life. It has a high recurrence rate and a poor prognosis, despite the availability of cognitive-behavioral and psychosocial therapy. Emerging neuromodulation techniques for treating harmful alcohol use are gaining traction in the field of psychotherapy, but knowing their efficacy in terms of psychosocial outcomes necessitates an adjuvant approach. This scoping review aims to investigate the existing evidence on the effectiveness of various psychosocial interventions that improve quality of life (QoL) dimensions in conjunction with neurotherapies for individuals with harmful alcohol use. Methods. The review utilized a five-stage technique to search for research papers from 2000 to 2022. After screening and reviewing 41 full-text papers, 29 were found to meet the inclusion criteria. Conclusion. The articles highlighted the advantages of integrated therapeutic interventions such as motivation enhancement therapy, cognitive behavior therapy, neurotherapy, multimodal therapy, supportive therapy, and 12-step facilitation programs. However, limited studies have explored the effectiveness of combining neurotherapy with psychosocial interventions. Implications. Future research should focus on the efficacy of combining neurofeedback with psychosocial therapies to improve QoL for individuals with harmful alcohol use.


Addolorato, G., Mirijello, A., Leggio, L., Ferrulli, A., D'Angelo, C., Vassallo, G., Cossari, A., Gasbarrini, G., Landolfi, R., Agnes, S., Gasbarrini, A., & Gemelli OLT Group. (2013). Liver transplantation in alcoholic patients: impact of an alcohol addiction unit within a liver transplant center. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 37(9), 1601–1608. https://doi.org/10.1111/acer.12117

Adger Jr, H., & Saha, S. (2013). Alcohol use disorders in adolescents. Pediatrics in Review, 34(3), 103–114. https://doi.org/10.1542/pir.34-3-103

Andresen, B. (2006). Inventar Klinischer Persönlichkeitsakzentuierungen (IKP): Dimensionale Diagnostik nach DSM-IV und ICD-10 [Inventory of Clinical Personality Accentuations (ICP): Dimensional diagnostics according to DSM-IV and ICD-10]. Göttingen: Hogrefe.

Annis, H. M., Graham, J. M., & Davis, C. S. (1982). Inventory of drinking situations. Addiction Research Foundation.

Anthenelli, R., & Grandison, L. (2012). Effects of stress on alcohol consumption [Editorial]. Alcohol Research: Current Reviews, 34(4), 381–382.

Arksey, H., & O'Malley, L. (2005). Scoping studies: Towards a methodological framework. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 8(1), 19–32. https://doi.org/10.1080/1364557032000119616

Armor, D. J., Polich, J. M., & Stambul, H. B. (1976). Alcoholism and treatment. Rand.

Basheer, S., Anurag, K., Garg, R., Kumar, R., & Vashisht, S. (2015). Quality of life of caregivers of mentally ill patients in a tertiary care hospital. Industrial Psychiatry Journal, 24(2), 144–149. https://doi.org/10.4103/0972-6748.181721

Becker, H. C. (2008). Alcohol dependence, withdrawal, and relapse. Alcohol Research & Health, 31(4), 348–361.

Brandt, J. (1991). The Hopkins Verbal Learning Test: Development of a new memory test with six equivalent forms. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 5(2), 125–142. https://doi.org/10.1080/13854049108403297

Burtscheidt, W., Wölwer, W., Schwarz, R., Strauss, W., Löll, A., Lüthcke, H., Lüthcke, H., & Gaebel, W. (2001). Out‐patient behaviour therapy in alcoholism: Relapse rates after 6 months. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 103(1), 24–29. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0447.2001.00150.x

Callaghan, B. L., & Tottenham, N. (2016). The stress acceleration hypothesis: Effects of early-life adversity on emotion circuits and behavior. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 7, 76–81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cobeha.2015.11.018

Carroll, K. M., Nich, C., Frankforter, T. L., & Bisighini, R. M. (1999). Do patients change in the ways we intend? Assessing acquisition of coping skills among cocaine-dependent patients. Psychological Assessment, 11(1), 77. https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.11.1.77

Chiu, C.-H., Chou, F. H.-C., Wu, H.-C., Ko, C.-H., Tsai, M.-C., Tsai, J.-K., Hsu, C.-Y., Chung, K.-S., Lu, Y.-S., & Li, D.-J. (2024). Factors associated with neurofeedback and mindfulness-based combination therapy for patients with substance use disorder: A multicenter study. The European Journal of Psychiatry, 38(2), Article 100245. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpsy.2023.100245

Costa, P. T., Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (2008). The revised NEO-PI/NEO-FFI manual supplement. In G. J. Boyle, G. Matthews, & D. H. Saklofske (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of personality theory and assessment, Vol. 2. personality measurement and testing (pp. 179–198). Sage Publications, Inc. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781849200479.n9

Cox, W. M., Subramanian, L., Linden, D. E. J., Lührs, M., McNamara, R., Playle, R., Hood, K., Watson, G., Whittaker, J. R., Sakhuja, R., & Ihssen, N. (2016). Neurofeedback training for alcohol dependence versus treatment as usual: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials, 17(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-016-1607-7

Dalkner, N., Unterrainer, H. F., Wood, G., Skliris, D., Holasek, S. J., Gruzelier, J. H., & Neuper, C. (2017). Short-term beneficial effects of 12 sessions of neurofeedback on avoidant personality accentuation in the treatment of alcohol use disorder. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, Article 1688. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01688

Daudt, H. M. L., van Mossel, C., & Scott, S. J. (2013). Enhancing the scoping study methodology: A large, inter-professional team’s experience with Arksey and O’Malley’s framework. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 13, Article 48. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-13-48

Davidson, D., Gulliver, S. B., Longabaugh, R., Wirtz, P. W., & Swift, R. (2007). Building better cognitive-behavioral therapy: is broad-spectrum treatment more effective than motivational- enhancement therapy for alcohol-dependent patients treated with naltrexone? Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 68(2), 238–247. https://doi.org/10.15288/jsad.2007.68.238

DeVito, E. E., Worhunsky, P. D., Carroll, K. M., Rounsaville, B. J., Kober, H., & Potenza, M. N. (2012). A preliminary study of the neural effects of behavioral therapy for substance use disorders. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 122(3), 228–235. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.10.002

Dhananjay S., K., & Prabhuswami, H. (2022). Assessment of quality of life among alcoholic patient at de-addiction centre, pune. Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results, 13(5), 853–856. https://doi.org/10.47750/pnr.2022.13.%20S05.135

DiClemente, C. C., Carbonari, J. P., Montgomery, R. P., & Hughes, S. O. (1994). The alcohol abstinence self-efficacy scale. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 55(2), 141–148. https://doi.org/10.15288/jsa.1994.55.141

Donovan, D. M., Ingalsbe, M. H., Benbow, J., & Daley, D. C. (2013). 12-step interventions and mutual support programs for substance use disorders: An overview. Social Work in Public Health, 28(3–4), 313–332. https://doi.org/10.1080/19371918.2013.774663

Dunne, N., & Ivers, J.-H. (2023). HPA axis function in alcohol use disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Addiction Neuroscience, 8, Article 100114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addicn.2023.100114

Dutra, L., Stathopoulou, G., Basden, S. L., Leyro, T. M., Powers, M. B., & Otto, M. W. (2008). A meta-analytic review of psychosocial interventions for substance use disorders. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 165(2), 179–187. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2007.06111851

Easton, C. J., Mandel, D. L., Hunkele, K. A., Nich, C., Rounsaville, B. J., & Carroll, K. M. (2007). A cognitive behavioral therapy for alcohol-dependent domestic violence offenders: An integrated substance abuse–domestic violence treatment approach (SADV). The American Journal on Addictions, 16(1), 24–31. https://doi.org/10.1080/10550490601077809

Elo, S., & Kyngäs, H. (2008). The qualitative content analysis process. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 62(1), 107–115. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2007.04569.x

Englund, M. M., Egeland, B., Oliva, E. M., & Collins, W. A. (2008). Childhood and adolescent predictors of heavy drinking and alcohol use disorders in early adulthood: A longitudinal developmental analysis. Addiction, 103(S1), 23–35. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2008.02174.x

Epstein, E. E., & McCrady, B. S. (1998). Behavioral couples treatment of alcohol and drug use disorders: Current status and innovations. Clinical Psychology Review, 18(6), 689–711. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0272-7358(98)00025-7

Epstein, N. B., Baldwin, L. M., & Bishop, D. S. (1984). McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD) [Database record]. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 9(2), 171–180. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.1983.tb01497.x

Feldstein Ewing, S. W., Filbey, F. M., Sabbineni, A., Chandler, L. D., & Hutchison, K. E. (2011). How psychosocial alcohol interventions work: A preliminary look at what fMRI can tell us. Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research, 35(4), 643–651. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2010.01382.x

Festinger, L. (1954). Motivations leading to social behavior. In M. R. Jones (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation, 1954 (pp. 191–219). University of Nebraska Press.

Fielenbach, S., Donkers, F. C., Spreen, M., & Bogaerts, S. (2018). Effects of a theta/sensorimotor rhythm neurofeedback training protocol on measures of impulsivity, drug craving, and substance abuse in forensic psychiatric patients with substance abuse: Randomized controlled trial. JMIR Mental Health, 5(4), Article e10845. https://doi.org/10.2196/10845

Finney, J. W., Noyes, C. A., Coutts, A. I., & Moos, R. H. (1998). Evaluating substance abuse treatment process models: Changes on proximal outcome variables during 12-step and cognitive-behavioral treatment. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 59(4), 371–380. https://doi.org/10.15288/jsa.1998.59.371

Finney, J. W., Wilbourne, P. L., & Moos, R. H. (2007). Psychosocial treatments for substance use disorders. In P. E. Nathan, & J. M. Gorman (Eds.), A guide to treatments that work (3rd Edition) (pp. 179–202). https://doi.org/10.1093/med:psych/9780195304145.003.0006

Folkman, S., & Lazarus, R. S. (1980). An analysis of coping in a middle-aged community sample. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 21(3), 219–239. https://doi.org/10.2307/2136617

Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E., & McHugh, P. R. (1975). “Mini-mental state”: A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12(3), 189–198. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-3956(75)90026-6

Foster, J. H., Marshall, E. J., & Peters, T. J. (2000). Outcome after in-patient detoxification for alcohol dependence: A naturalistic comparison of 7 versus 28 days stay. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 35(6), 580–586. https://doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/35.6.580

Foster, J. H., Peters, T. J., & Marshall, E. J. (2000). Quality of life measures and outcome in alcohol-dependent men and women. Alcohol, 22(1), 45–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0741-8329(00)00102-6

Getter, H., Litt, M. D., Kadden, R. M., & Cooney, N. L. (1992). Measuring treatment process in coping skills and interactional group therapies for alcoholism. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 42(3), 419–430. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207284.1992.11490709

Ghosh, T., Jahan, M., & Singh, A. R. (2014). The efficacy of electroencephalogram neurofeedback training in cognition, anxiety, and depression in alcohol dependence syndrome: A case study. Industrial Psychiatry Journal, 23(2), 166–170. https://doi.org/10.4103/0972-6748.151705

Gopiram, P., & Kishore, M. T. (2014). Psychosocial attributes of substance abuse among adolescents and young adults: A comparative study of users and non-users. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine, 36(1), 58–61. https://doi.org/10.4103/0253-7176.127252

Hausberg, M. C., Schulz, H., Piegler, T., Happach, C. G., Klöpper, M., Brütt, A. L., Sammet, I., & Andreas, S. (2012). Is a self-rated instrument appropriate to assess mentalization in patients with mental disorders? Development and first validation of the Mentalization Questionnaire (MZQ). Psychotherapy Research, 22(6), 699–709. https://doi.org/10.1080/10503307.2012.709325

Hays, R. D., Sherbourne, C. D., & Mazel, R. M. (1993). The RAND 36-Item Health Survey 1.0. Health Economics, 2(3), 217–227. https://doi.org/10.1002/hec.4730020305

Hofmann, S. G., Asnaani, A., Vonk, I. J., Sawyer, A. T., & Fang, A. (2012). The efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 36, 427–440. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-012-9476-1

Hohman, Z. P., Crano, W. D., Siegel, J. T., & Alvaro, E. M. (2014). Attitude ambivalence, friend norms, and adolescent drug use. Prevention Science, 15(1), 65–74. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-013-0368-8

Hulse, G. K., & Tait, R. J. (2002). Six‐month outcomes associated with a brief alcohol intervention for adult in‐patients with psychiatric disorders. Drug and Alcohol Review, 21(2), 105–112. https://doi.org/10.1080/09595230220138993a

Imperatori, C., Della Marca, G., Amoroso, N., Maestoso, G., Valenti, E. M., Massullo, C., Carbone, G. A., Contardi, A., & Farina, B. (2017). Alpha/theta neurofeedback increases mentalization and default mode network connectivity in a non-clinical sample. Brain Topography, 30, 822–831. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10548-017-0593-8

Jones, S. L., Kanfer, R., & Lanyon, R. I. (1982). Skill training with alcoholics: A clinical extension. Addictive Behaviors, 7(3), 285–290. https://doi.org/10.1016/0306-4603(82)90057-0

Jurado-Barba, R., Sion, A., Martínez-Maldonado, A., Domínguez-Centeno, I., Prieto-Montalvo, J., Navarrete, F., García-Gutierrez, M. S., Manzanares, J., & Rubio, G. (2020). Neuropsychophysiological measures of alcohol dependence: can we use EEG in the clinical assessment? Frontiers in Psychiatry, 11, Article 676. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00676

Kamath, P. S., Wiesner, R. H., Malinchoc, M., Kremers, W., Therneau, T. M., Kosberg, C. L., D’Amico, G., Dickson, E. R., & Kim, R. W. (2001). A model to predict survival in patients with end–stage liver disease. Hepatology, 33(2), 464–470. https://doi.org/10.1053/jhep.2001.22172

Kaner, E. F., Beyer, F. R., Muirhead, C., Campbell, F., Pienaar, E. D., Bertholet, N., Daeppen, J. B., Saunders, J. B., & Burnand, B. (2018). Effectiveness of brief alcohol interventions in primary care populations. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2(2), CD004148. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004148.pub4

Karlsson, H., Persson, E., Perini, I., Yngve, A., Heilig, M., & Tinghög, G. (2021). Acute effects of alcohol on social and personal decision making. Neuropsychopharmacology, 47(4), 824–831. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41386-021-01218-9

Kelly, J. F., Humphreys, K., & Ferri, M. (2020). Alcoholics anonymous and other 12‐step programs for alcohol use disorder. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 3(3), Article CD012880. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD012880.pub2

Ko, S., & Park, W. (2018). Effects of quantitative electroencephalography based neurofeedback training on autonomous regulations in patients with alcohol use disorder. Asian Nursing Research, 12(2), 136–144. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anr.2018.05.003

Kraemer, K. L., Maisto, S. A., Conigliaro, J., McNeil, M., Gordon, A. J., & Kelley, M. E. (2002). Decreased alcohol consumption in outpatient drinkers is associated with improved quality of life and fewer alcohol‐related consequences. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 17(5), 382–386. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1525-1497.2002.10613.x

Kroenke, K., Spitzer, R. L., & Williams, J. B. (2001). The PHQ-9: Validity of a brief depression severity measure. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 16(9), 606–613. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1525-1497.2001.016009606.x

Levac, D., Colquhoun, H., & O'Brien, K. K. (2010). Scoping studies: Advancing the methodology. Implementation Science, 5, Article 69. https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-5-69

Linskiy, I. V., Khaustov, M., Kuzminov, V., Minko, O., Kozhyna, H., Grynevych, Y., Ovcharenko, M., Chugunov, V., Postrelko, V., Denysenko, M., Plekhov, V., Tkachenko, T., Zadorozhnyi, V., Malykhina, N., Minko, O., Lakynskyi, R., Vasilyeva, O., Yurchenko, O., Herasymov, B., & Herasymov, D. (2022). The influence of drinkers on alcohol preferences and habits, as well as on the quality of life of representatives of their microsocial environment. The Scientific and Practical Journal of Medicine, 30(2), 4–17. https://doi.org/10.36927/2079-0325-V30-is2-2022-1

Litt, M. D., Kadden, R. M., Tennen, H., & Kabela-Cormier, E. (2016). Network support II: Randomized controlled trial of network support treatment and cognitive behavioral therapy for alcohol use disorder. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 165, 203–212. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.06.010

Luk, J. W., Ramchandani, V. A., Diazgranados, N., Schwandt, M. L., Gunawan, T., George, D. T., & Goldman, D. (2022). Multidimensional quality of life across the spectrum of alcohol use behavior. Psychiatric Research and Clinical Practice, 4(4), 92–101. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.prcp.20220023

McCambridge, J., & Saitz, R. (2017). Rethinking brief interventions for alcohol in general practice. BMJ, 356, j116. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.j116

McHugh, R. K., Hearon, B. A., & Otto, M. W. (2010). Cognitive behavioral therapy for substance use disorders. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 33(3), 511–525. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psc.2010.04.012

McLellan, A. T., Kushner, H., Metzger, D., Peters, R., Smith, I., Grissom, G., Pettinati, H., & Argeriou, M. (1992). The fifth edition of the addiction severity index. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 9(3), 199–213. https://doi.org/10.1016/0740-5472(92)90062-s

Miller, W. R., & Rose, G. S. (2009). Toward a theory of motivational interviewing. The American Psychologist, 64(6), 527–537. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016830

Miller, W. R., & Rose, G. S. (2015). Motivational interviewing and decisional balance: Contrasting responses to client ambivalence. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 43(2), 129–141. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1352465813000878

Miller, W. R., Tonigan, J. S., & Longabaugh, R., (1995). The Drinker Inventory of Consequences (DrInC): An instrument for assessing adverse consequences of alcohol abuse: Test manual (No. 95). US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

Monti, P. M., Rohsenow, D. J., Rubonis, A. V., Niaura, R. S., Sirota, A. D., Colby, S. M., Goddard, P., & Abrams, D. B. (1993). Cue exposure with coping skills treatment for male alcoholics: A preliminary investigation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61(6), 1011–1019. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006x.61.6.1011

Moustafa, A. A., Alvinia, N. P., Liu, L., Richard, Y., Hanafy, A. A., Bagadood, N. H., & Hamza, E. A. (2023). Drinking motives as a predictor of readiness to change alcohol use. Current Psychology, 43, 1264–1277. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-023-04245-5

Mowbray (2013). The moderating role of social networks in the relationship between alcohol consumption and treatment utilization for alcohol-related problems. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 46(5), 597–601. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2013.12.001

Padula, C. B., Simmons, A. N., Matthews, S. C., Robinson, S. K., Tapert, S. F., Schuckit, M. A., & Paulus, M. P. (2011). Alcohol attenuates activation in the bilateral anterior insula during an emotional processing task: A pilot study. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 46(5), 547–552. https://doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agr066

Partington, J. E., & Leiter, R. G. (1949). Partington's Pathways Test. Psychological Service Center Journal, 1, 11–20.

Patton, J. H., Stanford, M. S., & Barratt, E. S. (1995). Factor structure of the Barrat impulsiveness scale. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 51(6), 768–774. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679(199511)51:6<768::aid-jclp2270510607>3.0.co;2-1

Peters, M. D., Godfrey, C. M., Khalil, H., McInerney, P., Parker, D., & Soares, C. B. (2015). Guidance for conducting systematic scoping reviews. International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare, 13(3), 141–146. https://doi.org/10.1097/XEB.0000000000000050

Polich, J. M., Armor, D. J., & Braiker, H. B. (1980). Patterns of alcoholism over four years. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 41(5), 397–416. https://doi.org/10.15288/jsa.1980.41.397

Porjesz, B., & Begleiter, H. (2003). Alcoholism and human electrophysiology. Alcohol Research & Health, 27(2), 153–160.

Powers, M. B., Vedel, E., & Emmelkamp, P. M. G. (2008). Behavioral couples therapy (BCT) for alcohol and drug use disorders: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 28(6), 952–962. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2008.02.002

Priester, J. R., & Petty, R. E. (2001). Extending the bases of subjective attitudinal ambivalence: Interpersonal and intrapersonal antecedents of evaluative tension. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80(1), 19–34. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.80.1.19

Prochaska, J. M., Prochaska, J. O., Cohen, F. C., Gomes, S. O., Laforge, R. G., & Eastwood, A. L. (2004). The transtheoretical model of change for mutli-level interventions for alcohol abuse on campus. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 47(3), 34–50.

Rangaswamy, M., Porjesz, B., Chorlian, D. B., Choi, K., Jones, K. A., Wang, K., Rohrbaugh, J., O'Connor, S., Kuperman, S., Reich, T., & Begleiter, H. (2003). Theta power in the EEG of alcoholics. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 27(4), 607–615. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ALC.0000060523.95470.8F

Rangaswamy, M., Porjesz, B., Chorlian, D. B., Wang, K., Jones, K. A., Bauer, L. O., Rohrbaugh, J., O'Connor, S. J., Kuperman, S., Reich, T., & Begleiter, H. (2002). Beta power in the EEG of alcoholics. Biological Psychiatry, 52(8), 831–842. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3223(02)01362-8

Rawson, R. A., Huber, A., McCann, M., Shoptaw, S., Farabee, D., Reiber, C., & Ling, W. (2002). A comparison of contingency management and cognitive-behavioral approaches during methadone maintenance treatment for cocaine dependence. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59(9), 817–824. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.59.9.817

Rollnick, S., Heather, N., Gold, R., & Hall, W. (1992). Development of a short 'readiness to change' questionnaire for use in brief, opportunistic interventions among excessive drinkers. British Journal of Addiction, 87(5), 743–754. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.1992.tb02720.x

Ros, T., J Baars, B., Lanius, R. A., & Vuilleumier, P. (2014). Tuning pathological brain oscillations with neurofeedback: A systems neuroscience framework. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, Article 1008. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2014.01008

Ryan, R. M., & Connell, J. P. (1989). Perceived locus of causality and internalization: Examining reasons for acting in two domains. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(5), 749–761. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.57.5.749

Selzer, M. L. (1971). The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test: The quest for a new diagnostic instrument. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 127(12), 1653–1658. https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.127.12.1653

Shiji, P., Kamath, N., & Hegde, S. (2020). Effectiveness of health promotional strategies on quality of life among spouse of alcoholics in selected communities of Dakshina Kannada District, India. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, 14(9), LC20–LC25. https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2020/44648.14038

Sinha, R. (2008). Chronic stress, drug use, and vulnerability to addiction. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1141(1), 105–130. https://doi.org/10.1196/annals.1441.030

Skinner, H. A., & Horn, J. L. (1984). Alcohol dependence scale (ADS): User's guide. Addiction Research Foundation.

Sobell, L. C., Brown, J., Leo, G. I., & Sobell, M. B. (1996). The reliability of the Alcohol Timeline Followback when administered by telephone and by computer. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 42(1), 49–54. https://doi.org/10.1016/0376-8716(96)01263-X

Sobell, M. B., Sobell, L. C., & Leo, G. I. (2000). Does enhanced social support improve outcomes for problem drinkers in guided self-change treatment? Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 31(1), 41–54. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0005-7916(00)00007-0

Spanier, G. B. (1976). Measuring dyadic adjustment: New scales for assessing the quality of marriage and similar dyads. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 38(1), 15–28. https://doi.org/10.2307/350547

Spitzer, R. L., Williams, J. B., Gibbon, M., & First, M. B. (1992). The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID). I: History, rationale, and description. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49(8), 624–629. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1992.01820080032005

Stanton, M. D., & Shadish, W. R. (1997). Outcome, attrition, and family-couples treatment for drug abuse: A meta-analysis and review of the controlled, comparative studies. Psychological Bulletin, 122(2), 170–191. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.122.2.170

Sudhinaraset, M., Wigglesworth, C., & Takeuchi, D. T. (2016). Social and cultural contexts of alcohol use: Influences in a social-ecological framework. Alcohol Research: Current Reviews, 38(1), 35–45.

Suls, J., & Wheeler, L. (2008). A reunion for approach-avoidance motivation and social comparison. In A. J. Elliot (Ed.), Handbook of approach and avoidance motivation (pp. 585–600). Psychology Press.

The WHOQOL Group. (1998). Development of the World Health Organization WHOQOL-BREF Quality of Life Assessment. Psychological Medicine, 28(3), 551–558. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0033291798006667

Ugochukwu, C., Bagot, K. S., Delaloye, S., Pi, S., Vien, L., Garvey, T., Bolotaulo, N. I., Kumar, N., & IsHak, W. W. (2013). The importance of quality of life in patients with alcohol abuse and dependence. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 21(1), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1097/HRP.0b013e31827fd8aa

UKATT Research Team (2005). Effectiveness of treatment for alcohol problems: findings of the randomised UK alcohol treatment trial (UKATT). BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.), 331(7516), 541. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.331.7516.541

Vukadinovic, B. S., Karch, S., Paolini, M., Reidler, P., Rauchmann, B., Koller, G., Pogarell, O., & Keeser, D. (2024). Neurofeedback for alcohol addiction: Changes in resting state network activity✰. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 339, Article 111786. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pscychresns.2024.111786

Wagner, E. F., Myers, M. G., & McIninch, J. L. (1999). Stress-coping and temptation-coping as predictors of adolescent substance use. Addictive Behaviors, 24(6), 769–779. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0306-4603(99)00058-1

Wechsler, D. (1997). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Third Edition (WAIS-III) [Database record]. APA PsycTests. https://doi.org/10.1037/t49755-000

Wells, A., & Davies, M. I. (1994). The Thought Control Questionnaire: A measure of individual differences in the control of unwanted thoughts. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 32(8), 871–878. https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967(94)90168-6

Wells, E. A., Peterson, P. L., Gainey, R. R., Hawkins, J. D., & Catalano, R. F. (1994). Outpatient treatment for cocaine abuse: a controlled comparison of relapse prevention and twelve-step approaches. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 20(1), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.3109/00952999409084053

World Health Organization. (2018). Global status report on alcohol and health 2018 (p. vii). Retrieved April 27, 2022, from https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789241565639

Yuan, S., Wu, H., Wu, Y., Xu, H., Yu, J., Zhong, Y., Zhang, N., Li, J., Xu, Q., & Wang, C. (2022). Neural effects of cognitive behavioral therapy in psychiatric disorders: A systematic review and activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, Article 853804. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.853804

Zhang, H., Yao, J., Xu, C., & Wang, C. (2023). Targeting electroencephalography for alcohol dependence: A narrative review. CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics, 29(5), 1205–1212. https://doi.org/10.1111/cns.14138






Review Articles