Infra-slow Fluctuation Training in Clinical Practice: A Technical History


  • Mark Llewellyn Smith
  • Thomas F. Collura
  • John Ferrera
  • Jacqueline de Vries



neurofeedback, biofeedback, infra-slow fluctuation, infra-slow oscillation, direct current


Infra-slow Fluctuation (ISF) electroencephalogram (EEG) biofeedback is a recent development in neurofeedback training.  This form of training is focused on the lowest energy the brain produces (< 0.1 Hz).  The intervention is performed with a Direct Current (DC) coupled neurofeedback amplifier.  It is distinct from Slow Cortical Potential (SCP) training and Infra-Low Frequency (ILF) training.  It shares a similar optimization process with ILF that focuses on emergent state shifts within sessions.  These state shifts require frequency adjustments that optimize client response to the training in real time.  Due to the technical difficulties inherent in recording these frequencies, EEG investigators largely neglected this low energy until recently.  As DC amplifiers improved, the slow frequencies became a signal of increasing interest to researchers.  Research has demonstrated an important role for the infra-slow oscillations in clinical work.  Positive clinical case outcomes suggest that a larger controlled study is warranted.  The technical, clinical, and equipment requirements of the intervention make this form of neurofeedback unique in the pantheon of EEG biofeedback interventions.






Technical Notes