Using Neurofeedback to Improve ADHD Symptoms in School-Aged Children

  • Connie J McReynolds California State University, San Bernardino
  • Lelah S. Villalpando Loma Linda University
  • Cynthia E. Britt Bear Valley Unified School District
Keywords: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), auditory processing, visual processing, neurofeedback, Integrated Visual and Auditory (IVA2) Continuous Performance Test, non-pharmacological


The diagnosis and treatment of the behaviors associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) predominantly involves pharmacological interventions.  Many children experience significant negative side effects (e.g., appetite suppression, insomnia, headaches, stomachaches, irritability, and impaired height) from the initial and continued use of stimulant medication.  Consequently, many parents are motivated to consider alternative treatments for ADHD such as neurofeedback.  This paper presents an archival review of the improvements in auditory and visual attention and response control after 40 sessions of artifact-corrected neurofeedback for 51 children ages 6 to 17 with ADHD.  Initially, the majority of these clients were identified as having severe to extreme auditory and visual attention impairments.  The IVA-2 CPT was administered prior to treatment and after 20 and 40 treatment sessions were completed.  After 20 sessions of neurofeedback significant improvements of both auditory and visual attention and response control were found with small to large size effects.  The clients continued to improve after an additional 20 sessions, with medium to large size effects after 40 sessions.  At completion of treatment the mean of eight of the nine attention and response control scores fell within the “normal” range.

Author Biographies

Connie J McReynolds, California State University, San Bernardino

Special Education, Rehabilitation & Counseling


Lelah S. Villalpando, Loma Linda University

Clinical Psychology

Doctoral Candidate

Cynthia E. Britt, Bear Valley Unified School District

Bear Valley Unified School District

School Psychologist


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